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octopus prime

A Brief History Of A Few Things

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Feel free to add, subtract, debate or ignore...I'll post a different section every day...

The Luciferian Bloodline

The plot for a series of World Wars in the twentieth century, culminating in a third against the Muslim world, was devised in the eighteenth century, by American Civil War general, Albert Pike, then Grand Master of Scottish Rite Freemasonry, a primary adjunct of the Illuminati. However, though the final stages of this plot have been largely reserved for our time, the conspiracy is affiliated with a lore of occult knowledge that dates back to at least the sixth century BC. This lore begins with a heresy, known as Kabbalah, which disguises itself as Jewish, but is a pact to seek world domination, and the eradication of religion in favour of the worship of Lucifer.

The goal devised by these Kabbalists has since been the installation of their “messiah” as world leader, who, according to their interpretation of the Bible, is to be of line of King David. Since that time, to preserve this purported lineage, until the advent of their expected leader, these Luciferians have been carefully intermarrying amongst each other, and have included among them many of the leading figures of history. They begin with a Persian Royal family, who intermarried with that of Alexander the Great. By combining with that of Herod the Great, these families were responsible for the creation and dissemination of the leading mystery school of the Roman Empire, the Mysteries of Mithras, which eventually succeeded in co-opting the emerging Christian movement, by producing Catholic Christianity.

Nevertheless, a secret, or Gnostic, version of Christianity, also derived from Mithraism, survived to compete with Catholicism, in the form of several secret societies, like the Templars, Rosicrucians and Freemasons, practicing occult arts, or what is known as “witchcraft”. This tradition, was perpetuated by the most popularized branch of the Luciferian bloodline, the Merovingians. Symbolized by the Holy Grail, the Merovingians, after intermarrying into the family of a Jewish Exilarch, or claimant to the Jewish throne, culminated in all the leading families of the Crusades.

It was at this time that this European branch of the family recombined with others from Eastern Europe and Armenia. These Eastern aristocracies derived from the enigmatic Khazars, who had populated southern Russia and the Basin of the Don River, and who, in the eighth century AD, had converted to Judaism. Legend has it, however, that the Khazars were remnants of the Lost Tribes. Armenia, just across the Caucasus, was another locale of these supposed Lost Tribes. It was the intermarriage and perpetuation of these aristocratic bloodlines that were being referred to in the heraldic symbols of the lily, the rose, the double-headed eagle, and the skull and crossbones.

Also during the Crusades, this network connected with an important occult center hiding within the Islamic world, in Cairo Egypt, who followed the heretical version of Islam known as Ismailism. According to Masonic legend, a number of these “Eastern Brethren” were rescued and brought to Scotland, where they provided the basis of Sottish Rite Freemasonry, which only emerged in the eighteenth century. However, at the same time, this legend also provided the basis for the establishment of Freemasonry in Egypt, which then became the second center of Illuminati activism. It was from these secret networks of impostors by which the Western powers created Islamic terrorism, used to foment of a Clash of Civilizations, through the fabrication of the terrorist threat.

The Fallen Angels

The Illuminati claim to be descended of Fallen Angels, who taught them the “Ancient Wisdom”, also known as the Kabbalah, which they have been preserving throughout the centuries. These Fallen Angels are referred to in the Bible, Book of Genesis, as the Nephilim, or “Sons of God”, and were said to have descended to earth and intermarried with human beings. Christian interpretations struggle with the passage, choosing to translate the term into “mighty men”. However, apocryphal Jewish texts explain that they were the devil and his legions, who were cast out of Heaven, and took wives from the female descendants of Cain. They produced a race known as the Anakim.

According to the Illuminati, it is they who first introduced humanity to the occult arts, including astrology, magic and alchemy. This period in history is believed by occultists to accord with the lost continent of Atlantis. The race produced by the intermixing of the Fallen Angels and humans is thought to be the Aryans. Supposedly, their corruption caused great corruption in the earth, to such an extent that, according to these same Apocryphal works, God decided to destroy them through the Flood. Here it is important to understand the Bible account, from which their legends are interpreted. According to the Bible, wickedness soon returned to the earth, however, when Noah’s son Ham committed a sin. Ham moved southwest into Africa and parts of the near Middle East, and was the forefather of the nations there. From Ham’s son, Mizraim, came the Egyptians, from Phut, the Lybians, and from Kush, came the Kushites, who established Ethiopia. Cush was also the father of Nimrod, the legendary founder of the ancient city of Babylon, who was responsible for instigating the building of the Tower of Babel.

Supposedly, Shem, Ham’s brother, and Cush's great uncle, became appalled by his nephew's evil deeds, and killed Nimrod. Before his death, however, Nimrod had married and impregnated his own mother, named Semiramis. After Nimrod was slain, Semiramis instituted the worship of herself and her son among the people of Babylon, who came to regard Nimrod was a sun-god, and she was a goddess, or Queen of Heaven.

Nimrod, or Bel, as he was later worshipped by the Babylonians, was also identified with the constellation of Orion, the shepherd of the stars, and therefore referred to mystically in the Bible as “a mighty hunter before the Lord”. Semiramis, later revered as Ishtar, was identified with the planet Venus, as were all the goddesses modeled after her.

Nimrod was confronted in his blasphemy by Abraham, the founder of the Jewish nation, who left his own nation of star-worshippers, in Harran, to found a new religion. Abraham’s grandson Jacob, later Israel, had twelve sons, from whom were descended the Twelve Tribes of Israel. And, through the influence of the Kabbalah, these tribes acquired mystical symbolism, which would later become prominent features of European heraldry.

Like the astrological zodiac, these twelve tribes were divided into four camps of three, in accordance with the four seasons of the Zodiac, divided according to the Four Elements. Thus, Reuben, who is compared to running water, with Simeon and Gad, are Aquarius. Judah, the lion, with Issachar and Zebulon, are Leo. Benjamin, Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Jacob compares to the ox, are Taurus. Naphtali, Asher and Dan, whose device is the scorpion, synonymous astrologically with the eagle, are Scorpio.

The brothers tried to kill their sibling Joseph, by dropping him into a well, but he was later rescued, and eventually became a governor in Egypt. And, when the Israelites were stricken with famine, they were forced to seek the assistance of Joseph in Egypt, who finally revealed himself to his treacherous brothers.

After four hundred years in Egypt, the increasing number of Israelites in the country began to concern Pharaoh, who oppressed them. Moses was sent by God to revive the monotheistic religion of Abraham among the Israelites, and lead them to the land promised to their forefather, in what is known as the Covenant. For according to the Bible, God had chosen the Jewish people above other nations, to follow His commandments, especially to do unto others, as they would others do unto them, and to stand out as examples of righteousness for mankind.

After confronting Pharaoh, Moses successfully acquired permission to lead his people out of the land. However, a short time after the Israelites had cross the Red Sea, and while Moses was away on Mount Sinai receiving the tablets of the Ten Commandments, they blasphemed by constructing a statue of a Golden Calf from their melted Jewelry. Scholars acknowledge that this cow-god was borrowed from the Apis Bull of the Egyptians, who was equated with Osiris. More accurately, Osiris and Isis were merely the Egyptian versions of the same couple worshipped in Babylon originally as Nimrod and Semiramis.

Moses ordered the Seventy Elders to slay the idolaters, and the tribe continued its journey to the Promised Land, where they were ordered to conquer the inhabitants. Palestine was then inhabited by the descendants of Ham’s fourth son, Canaan. According to the Bible, although it was Ham who had sinned, it was upon Canaan that the curse would fall upon. According to occult interpretation, however, the Canaanites represented survivors of the Anakim. In Deuteronomy 9:1-2, we read: “Hear, O Israel! You are crossing over the Jordan today to go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than you, great cities fortified to heaven, a people great and tall, the sons of the Anakim whom you know and of whom you have heard it said, “Who can stand before the sons of Anak?”

The Israelites eventually succeed in taking hold of the land of Palestine, but soon falter into the worship of pagan gods. According to the Bible, the Jews are told repeatedly not to intermarry with the Canaanites, nor to worship their idols. Despite these warnings, not only do the early Israelites intermarry extensively with their subjects, but adopt their pagan ways, by worshipping Baal and Astarte, the Canaanite versions of Nimrod and Semiramis.

Though known by different names to different peoples, this dying-god and goddess shared common characteristics. They were consistently identified with the Sun, who in winter journeyed “beneath” the earth, into the Underworld. They were therefore believed to “die”, and to resurrect in spring, corresponding to the Christian Easter. Because Baal and his sister Astarte, were regarded as twins, as well married to each other, they were identified as a single androgynous god, symbolized by Venus, whose original Latin name was Lucifer.

Basically, the ancient pagans’ belief was dualistic. They believed there to be two powers in Heaven, a good God and evil one. Because he was believed to journey there in winter, the dying-god was regarded as the god of the Underworld, reigning over the souls of the dead, and therefore identified with evil. This led to the practice of black magic. To protect oneself from him, or to summon his powers to command spirits against one’s enemies, it was believed necessary to perform heinous sacrifices. Most common was the sacrifice of children, rites which were performed in drunkenness, attended with loud music, to drown out the screams of the suffering child, and followed by sexual orgies. These were the basis of the rites later known as “Mysteries”.[1]

The Medes

According to Kabbalistic interpretation, the entire line of Jewish kings were descended from Isaac's son Judah, and Tamar, his daughter-in-law, a Canaanite woman who had disguised herself as a prostitute in order to seduce him. Their son Perez was David’s ancestor. Solomon, to whom much of Kabbalistic tradition is attributed, was the son of David from Bathsheba, a Hittite woman. Therefore, according to Kabbalistic interpretation, though the Messiah is to be a descendant of the royal line of David, being the “Son of David”, he is also descended from the Satanic lineage of the Fallen Angels, through the Canaanites.

Therefore, through intermarriage with the Canaanites, the later Kabbalists could claim descent from the Anakim, and the Fallen Angels, or Lucifer and his legions. These Anakim, supposedly, were the original inhabitants of Atlantis, or Aryans. The Aryans are considered by the Illuminati to be the original core bloodline, a hybrid of humans and “divine” beings, responsible for the preservation of occult knowledge. According to modern historians, influenced by Kabbalistic legend, these Aryans, also known as Indo-Europeans, survived the Flood, or sinking of Atlantis, and found refuge in the mountains of Asia. From there they emerged the conquer the known peoples, spreading their customs and language to Central Asia, Iran, or Persia, and into Europe.

Interestingly, these various peoples have also historically been identified with the so-called Lost Tribes of Israel. An important branch of these is the Medes of Iran, among whom the original Lost Tribes had been scattered, before moving on into Armenia and Southern Russia.

After the death of King Solomon, in 928 BC, his realm was divided into the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judea. The Kingdom of Israel covered most of the central and northern land of Israel and was inhabited by descendants of ten of the original twelve tribes that conquered the land of Canaan under the leadership of Joshua: Asher, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, and Zebulon. The Kingdom of Judea centered on Jerusalem and the Judean highlands, and comprised the remaining two tribes of Judah and Benjamin.

A 125 years before the same fate would afflict the nation of Judah, the Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrians in 721 BCE, and in line with the general policy of the Assyrians, its inhabitants were deported to other regions of their empire. According to the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser, 13,750 of the wisest and most skilled of the Israelites were deported by 733 BC, while 27,290 more Israelite sages, musicians and artisans were brought to Babylonia by Sargon II in 727 BC . According to II Kings 17:16-20, this disaster came upon the nation of Israel because:

They defied all the commands of the Lord their God and made two calves from metal. They set up an Asherah pole and worshipped Baal and all the forces of heaven. They even sacrificed their own sons and daughters in the fire. They consulted fortune-tellers and used sorcery and sold themselves to evil, arousing the Lord’s anger. And because the Lord was angry, he swept them from his presence. Only the tribe of Judah remained in the land. But even the people of Judah refused to obey the commands of the Lord their God. They walked down the same evil paths that Israel had established. So the Lord rejected all the descendants of Israel. He punished them by handing them over to their attackers until they were destroyed.

According to the Books of Kings, the exiled tribes were transported to the region of the Medes, known as Medea, where they assimilated themselves into the population. Medea corresponds with today’s northern Iraq, or Northwest Iran, called Kurdistan.

According to Herodotus, a Greek historian of the fifth century BC, “These Medes were called anciently by all people Arian [Aryan]; but when Medea, the Colchian, came to them from Athens, they changed their name. Such is the account which they themselves give.”[2] This Medea Herodotus is reffering to is the Colchian Thracian witch of the story of Jason and the Argonauts of Greek myth. According to the legend, she later married Aegeas of Athens, after whom the Aegean Sea is named. The Medes were descended from their son Medus of Colchis.

According to Herodotus’ description, the Colchians, who dwelt in a land located along the western slope of the Caucasus Mountains near the Black Sea, were black and probably Jewish. Like the Jews of Palestine, which he referred to as “Phoenicians”, Herodotus also regard the people of Colchis, as deriving from an “Egyptian colony”. He not only pointed to the Colchians’ “black skin and woolly hair” as evidence, but also to their oral traditions, language, methods of weaving, and practice of circumcision. In addition, Saint Jerome, writing during the fourth century AD, called Colchis the “Second Ethiopia.” Similarly, two hundred years later, Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, described an “Ethiopian” presence in the same region. Diodorus of Sicily, a historian of the first century B.C, in his Universal History, stated:

They say also that those who set forth with Danaus [Dan, or Tribe of Dan], likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city of Greece, Argos, and that the nations of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country [i.e., Egypt]; and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these peoples to circumcise their male children . . . the custom having been brought over from Egypt. Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Sais in [the Nile Delta of] Egypt.[3]

By the sixth century BC, the Medes were able to establish an empire that stretched from Azerbaijan to north and Central Asia and Afghanistan. The Medes also mixed with other Iranians, especially Persians. Thus many modern Iranians are descendants of Medes. However, Mede heritage today is claimed particularly by groups in the western part of the Iranian Plateau, such as the Kurds, Lurs, Isfahan and the Turkic languages-speaking Azeri.

The Scythians

Although, the ten tribes, excepting Judah and Benjamin, have popularly been considered “lost” ever since, in ancient Jewish sources, their existence was well-known. According to Josephus, “...the Ten Tribes who are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, whose numbers cannot be estimated.”[4] Similarly, the Apocrypha presume to also know their location. In the Fourth Book of Ezra, the Ten Tribes were said to have been carried by Hosea, a prophet in Israel in the eighth century BC, to the Euphrates, at the narrow passages of the river, from which they went on for a journey of a year and a half to a place called “Arzareth”.[5]

This would have taken them to the land of the Scythians, whom Josephus and others have identified them as the ancestors of Gog and Magog, among whom they would have been absorbed. According to Herodotus, the Scythians emerged from beyond the Euphrates across the Armenian river, Araxes, a river that borders Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan.[6] The Scythians were an Iranian-speaking people, who had come from the northern shore of the Black Sea and invaded Armenia and Asia Minor. The Scythians first appear in Assyrian annals as Ishkuzai, related to the modern term “Ashkenazi”, from Ashkenaz, who was the son of Magog’'s brother Gomer.

The most significant Scythian tribes mentioned in the Greek sources resided in the basin of the Don river, just north of the Crimea, from where they invaded Armenia and Cappadocia, to become allies of the early Mede rulers.[7] In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians occupied the whole region from the Black Sea to the Taurus mountains, in eastern Turkey, from which the Euphrates River descends into Syria.

Certain etymologies propose that the word Scythians, from “Sacae”, in turn is derived from “Isaac Sons” or “Sons of Isaac.” Isaac, Abraham’s son, had two sons, Jacob, the father of the nation of Israel, and Esau, the forefather of the Edomites.

Certain etymologies propose that the word Scythians, from “Sacae”, in turn is derived from “Isaac Sons” or “Sons of Isaac.” Isaac, Abraham'’s son, had two sons, Jacob, the father of the nation of Israel, and Esau, the forefather of the Edomites. In the Bible, Esau was tricked out of his birthright, the leadership of Israel, by his brother Jacob. Esau was a red haired, or “red all over like a hairy garment”, and called Edom, which means red.15 Likewise, the Scythians, according to Herodotus, “have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair.” The legend persisted, such that, during the Middle Ages, German Jews regarded southern Russia and Central Asia as the location of the Lost Tribes, known to them as Red Jews, and identified with Gog and Magog.In addition to the so-called “Lost Tribes”, in the History of the Nation of Archers, by Armenian historian of the thirteenth century, Grigor Akner, corroborated the legend that the Scythians were Edomites:

The Esavites, who are the Scythians, descended from Esau, son of Isaac. They are black, wild, and strange looking. From them descend the Boramichk’ and Lekzik’, who dwell in holes and traps and perpetrate many crimes. And it is said that the Edomites who are the Franks also are descended from him. These three peoples, descendants of Hagar, Ketura, and Esau, mingled together and gave birth to another people, strange looking and wicked, called Tatar [Mongols], which means sharp and light.[8]

Along with the Edomites, the nation of the Scythians is also closely related to that of the Tribe of Simeon. Apparently, there were only nine tribes in the northern kingdom of Israel, after the Levites joined Judah. Simeon too was still settled in the portion of the tribe of Judah although part of Simeon had immigrated to various other locations outside the Holy Land. 2Chron. 4:43-44 describes some men of Simeon who immigrated from Judah to Edom: “And some of them, even of the sons of Simeon, five hundred men, went to mount Seir, having for their captains Pelatiah, and Neariah, and Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi. And they smote the rest of the Amalekites that were escaped, and dwelt there unto this day.” Thus the kingdom of Judah, after the fall of Samaria and before the Babylonian captivity, consisted of four tribes: Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, and Levi.[9]

To Be Continued....

http://www.conspiracyschool.com/lost-tribes-israel

 

Edited by octopus prime
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Great site I've read a lot of that stuff but from all over the web .Nice to see it all put together Great post Prime!!!!!!:applausesmall:

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Zionism

In the sixth century BC, the Assyrians finally succeeded in the sacking Jerusalem, and taking the remaining Jewish population into captivity, this time to the city of Babylon, near what is now Baghdad in Iraq. The tragedy was of enormous psychological consequence for Jewish people. The presence of the Jewish people in the Holy Land was regarded by many as a core tenet of their faith. According to the Bible, God had ratified a covenant between Himself and Abraham, to grant the land of Palestine to his descendants. This promise, however, was contingent on the Jewish people adhering to the Commandments of the Law. Ultimately, their Exile was a punishment fulfilled for their repeated transgressions and occult leanings.

Nevertheless, there were some among the Jewish exiles, who chose not to regard their captivity as a punishment, but as a temporary trial. Instead, they interpreted their status as God’s “Chosen” as a permanent relationship, and that the Promise to inhabit the land of Zion, or Palestine, was binding forever. Thus, this new Zionist interpretation was closely intertwined with the mystical directions of the Kabbalah. Therefore, this new Zionist interpretation was a bastardization of the real intent of the Jewish faith, and, as we shall see, was not an integral part of it, but was, through the centuries, increasingly imposed upon the rest of the Jewish community, by a minority committed to this diabolical scheme.

In Babylon, these heretical Jews, who refused to purge their religion of pagan influences, instead added to them the adopted practices of Babylonian magic. However, knowing that magic was forbidden in Judaism, they rejected the God of Israel, choosing instead to honor Lucifer, who they identified with the traditional enemy of the Hebrew faith, Baal. In order not to reveal their apostasy, they disguised their hidden faith as an “interpretation” of the religion, a cult now known as the Kabbalah.

This development is carefully described in the Koran, which explains that, though it was claimed the Kabbalah was derived originally from King Solomon, it was demons who taught such things, teaching them that which had been revealed to the angels Harut and Marut in Babylon. According to the Koran, chapter 2: 101-102:

When a messenger was sent to them (the Jews) by God confirming the revelations they had already received some of them turned their backs (to God’s message) as if they had no knowledge of it. They followed what the demons attributed to the reign of Solomon. But Solomon did not blaspheme, it was the demons who blasphemed, teaching men magic and such things as were revealed at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (such things) without saying; “we are a trial, so do not blaspheme.” They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not harm anyone except by God’ s permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what benefited them. And they knew that the purchasers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the hereafter. And vile was the price for which they sold their souls, if they but knew.

Borrowing from Jewish themes, therefore, these Kabbalists would seek world domination by arguing that they were preparing the world for the coming of the Messiah, and merely aiding God in bringing about His promise to institute them as rulers of the world. Having rejected the Jewish faith, however, they did not await the real Messiah, but would seek to establish their own ruler, who they would falsely claim as messiah, who would aid them in implementing the global acceptance of their occult creed.

The Chaldean Magi

The ancient world of the sixth century BC was not yet familiar with the Jewish people and their religion. Therefore, when these Kabbalists emerged from Babylon to disseminate their ideas, particularly among the Greeks, they were confusedly identified with the traditional Babylonian priests, known as the Chaldean Magi. The broad dissemination of these ideas had followed the release of the Jews from captivity by the Persians, led by Cyrus the Great, who had conquered Babylon in 539 BC.[1]

The Magi, according to Herodotus, were a tribe of the Medes, within the Persian Empire. The rise of the Persian Empire began in 553 BC, when Cyrus the Great, king of the Persians, rebelled against his grandfather, the Mede King Astyages. Thus the Medes were subjected to their close kin, the Persians.

The Persians were Zoroastrians, the religion of the prophet Zoroaster, and the Magi were their priests. The Magi, according to Herodotus, were a tribe of the Medes, within the Persian Empire. The rise of the Persian Empire began in 553 BC, when Cyrus the Great, king of the Persians, rebelled against his grandfather, the Mede King Astyages. Thus the Medes were subjected to their close kin, the Persians.

According to tradition, in 588 BC, Zoroaster converted the king Hystaspes. The wife of Hystaspes, Rhodah, Princess of Persia, had first been married to Zorobabel, third Jewish Exilarch of Babylon.[2] Their son, Darius, , through a conspiracy on the part of the Magi, eventually became Emperor.

Cyrus the Great, and later his son and successor, Cambyses, initially curtailed the power of the Magi. As pointed out by Franz Cumont, perhaps the leading scholar of the last century, although Zoroastrianism was originally monotheistic, the Magi quickly corrupted their religion, infusing with Babylonian elements. This point has caused much confusion among scholars, who have failed to properly assess Cumont’s studies. Because, they fail to see that when numerous ancient historians refer to the Magi, they do not refer to orthodox worshippers of Zoroaster, but these corrupting Magi.

Most interestingly, the ideas attributed to these “Magi” mirror those doctrines which later came to be acknowledged as the Kabbalah. It was they, in the sixth century BC, who developed the pseudo-science of astrology. Scholars have demonstrated that, though Babylonian religion was much concerned with astral themes, the cult of astrology could not have been invented until the sixth century BC, because of the lack of an accurate calendar system. In the Book of [3], Chapter 2:48, the prophet Daniel himself is made chief of the “wise men” of Babylon, that is of the Magi or Chaldeans, and yet remains faithful to the laws of his own religion.

Thus, this new cult of astrology and magic was incorporated into the rites of the dying-god. Mithras, the ancient god of the Persians, was assimilated to Baal, and occult mysteries and black arts were dedicated to him, which became the core of all later Ancient Mysteries.

In 522 BC, while Cambyses was in Egypt, a Magi named Gaumata seized power, claiming to be Smerdis, Cambyses’ brother, knowing that Cambyses had secretly killed the real Smerdis. Though Cambyses tried to advance on the usurper, he somehow died, some say by suicide. According to Herodotus, Otanes, likely the same as “Osthanes”, Cambyses’ uncle, became suspicious of the false Smerdis. From his daughter, who was married to the imposter, he learned that Smerdis was in reality a Magi. A counter-coup by Osthanes and six other nobles was then planned, until Darius, the son of Hystaspes, arrived and sided with them. Darius and Otanes debated whether to strike at once, which Darius favored, or to wait, which seemed better to Otanes. Darius’ strategy won out, the seven killed the false Smerdis, and Darius became Emperor.

The Phoenicians

As the Persian Empire expanded, Magian doctrines were exported to the rest of the known world, particularly to Greece. This is important towards understanding the central role that ancient Greece plays in the cult and history of the Illuminati. From the seventh century BC onward, Greece had been subject to a steady infusion of “Phoenician” immigrants, who gave Greece much of its culture, beginning with its alphabet, which is still the basis of the one we use today. Contrary to our modern perception of it, Ancient Greece was fundamentally a Middle Eastern civilization. The case for the foreign origin of Greek culture is such that, a little over fifty years ago, a German scholar had said:

...in view of this state of affairs it could not be called out of the way to ask what there was in Archaic Greece that did not come from the orient.

Numerous genealogies claim that Ilus, the grandfather of Priam, was descended from Zerah, the son of Judah from Tamar, and the brother of Peres, and that he married Electra, the daughter of Atlas the Titan.[4] According to Flavius Josephus, first century Jewish historian, Zerah’ son Dara, or Darda, was also Dardanus, after whom the straight of the Dardanelles is named. From his sons, several nations have claimed descent, including the Goths, descended from his daughter Troanna. Priam’s daughter Cassandra married Aeneas, who are the reputed ancestors of the Romans, Brutus and the kings of Scotland. And from Helenus King of Troy are descended the Sicambrians, later known as Franks.

According to Homer, in the Iliad, in his account of the war, the contingent of Greeks hidden within the Trojan Horse were Danaans. Purportedly, Greece had originally been colonized by remnants of the tribe of Dan, known to Greek historians as Danaans. The Danaans were a people regarded by the Greeks as being of Phoenician origin. The Greeks, however, had no knowledge of the Israelites until the fourth century BC. Therefore, they were confused with the Canaanites of Palestine, and referred to as Phoenicians. The conquests of Greece by the Dorians, also known as Heraklids, as well, has been equated with the Denyen Sea Peoples, or Danites of the Tribe of Dan, who devastated Mediterranean civilization in the twelfth century, coinciding with the penetration of the Israelites into the Promised Land.

Heccataeus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the fourth century BC, confirms the hypothesis when, referring to the Egyptians, he explained:

The natives of the land surmised that unless they removed the foreigners [Israelites] their troubles would never be resolved. At once, therefore, the aliens were driven from the country and the most outstanding and active among them branded together and, as some say, were cast ashore in Greece and certain other regions; their teachers were notable men, among them being Danaus and Cadmus. But the greater number were driven into what is now called Judea, which is not far from Egypt and at that time was utterly uninhabited. The colony was headed by a man called Moses.[5]

Already as early as the sixth century BC, the influence of the Magi resulted in the emergence of the Mysteries of Dionysus among the Greeks. The legendary founder of the rites of Dionysus was known to have been Orpheus. Artapanus, a Jewish philosopher of the third century BC, declared of Moses that, “as a grown man he was called Musaeus by the Greeks.  This Musaeus was the teacher of Orpheus.” Certainly, Moses was not the author of heretical doctrines developed in the sixth century BC, nearly a thousand years after his death. Still, these writers at least acknowledged the Jewish origin of the Greek mystical ideas.

The Magi would have adapted the Babylonian Bel to their own Mithras, who was then known as Dionysus among the Greeks, and their rites were as described by Clement of Alexandria:

The raving Dionysus is worshipped by Bacchants with orgies, in which they celebrate their sacred frenzy by a feast of raw flesh. Wreathed with snakes, they perform the distribution of portions of their victims, shouting the name Eva (Eua), that Eva through whom error entered into the world; and a consecrated snake is the emblem of the Bacchic orgies.[6]

Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher of the sixth century BC, equated the rites of Dionysus/Bacchus with those of the Magi, and commented: “if it were for Dionysus that they hold processions and sing hymns to the shameful parts [phalli], it would be a most shameless act; but Hades and Dionysus are the same, in whose honor they go mad and celebrate the Bacchic rites,”[7] and of the “Nightwalkers, Magi, Bacchoi, Lenai, and the initiated,” all these people he threatens with what happens after death: “for the secret rites practiced among humans are celebrated in an unholy manner.”[8]

< p>R C Zaehner has pointed out that, though the worship evil spirits was strictly forbidden in the orthodox version of the faith, the accounts of Greek authors accord in many respects with the doctrines of those referred to in Zoroastrian literature, as “sorcerers” or “deava worshippers”, or devil-worshippers. As these texts criticized, the Magi worshipped Ahriman, the Zoroastrian equivalent of the 

Plato

Essentially, while the Kabbalah can be traced back to Babylon, it was not there that its initial doctrines were expounded in literary form, but in ancient Greece. Though the Jews were allowed to return to Palestine by Cyrus the Great, no evidence of Jewish literature makes its appearance until the third century AD. Rather, the earliest elaboration of Kabbalistic doctrines takes place in Greece, among the so-called philosophers, and particularly Pythagoras, and later Plato, who has long been regarded as the godfather of this tradition.

The cult Orpheus, known as Orphism, became the basis of the philosophical cult developed by Pythagoras.[10] Accounts of Pythagoras having journeyed to Babylon for his learning are extensive. Through his influence, these ideas were then transmitted to Plato. Therefore, according to Momigliano, in Alien Wisdom, “it was Plato who made Persian wisdom thoroughly fashionable, though the exact place of Plato in the story is ambiguous and paradoxical.”[11] Actually, Plato’s position is not so ambiguous. A scholars and Momigliano are merely troubled that it evident that Plato, who is otherwise considered the example of Greek “rationality”, was evidently immersed in occult thought.

Though Plato is regarded as the greatest philosopher of Western civilization, he is not deserving of that reputation, and only achieved notoriety over the last two hundred and fifty years, through the influence of the Illuminati press, who regard him as the founder of their doctrines. Throughout the centuries, occultists have regarded Plato as the great founder of their agenda, and even Jewish Kabbalists regarded him as an exponent of their ideas. Essentially, while the Kabbalah was incepted in Babylon, it was Plato who first elaborated upon the Zionist principle of world domination, by formulating its vision for a totalitarian state, to be governed by the “Chosen People”, in this case, Kabbalists.

Scholars have entirely failed to recognize the presence of Kabbalistic doctrines in Plato because of their ignorance of the cult of the Magi. Scholars have generally dismissed any such influence, because, in their minds, there is no apparent influence of Zoroastrianism in Greek thought. This is correct. Rather, it was Franz Cumont, the greatest scholar of the twentieth century, and whose significance has yet to be recognized, who established that the Greeks did not come into contact with Zoroastrians, but heretical “Magi”, called Magusseans, who were influenced by Babylonian doctrines.

In antiquity, the reputation of Plato’s purported connection with the Magi was widespread. According to Aristobulus, a third century BC Jewish philosopher, Plato had access to translations of Jewish texts, and therefore, “it is evident that Plato imitated our legislation and that he had investigated thoroughly each of the elements in it... For he was very learned, as was Pythagoras, who transferred many of our doctrines and integrated them into his own beliefs.[12]

Eudoxus of Cnidus, who seems to have acted as head of the Academy during Plato’s absence, traveled to Babylon and Egypt, studying at Heliopolis, where he learned the “priestly wisdom” and astrology. According to Pliny, Eudoxus “wished magic [the cult of the Magi] to be recognized as the most noble and useful of the schools of philosophy.”[13]

In the Laws, Plato proposed astrological idea, about which E. R. Dodds, who is skeptical of the extent of Magian influence on Plato’s thought, is willing to concede that:

...the proposals of the Laws do seem to give the heavenly bodies a religious importance which they lacked in ordinary Greek cult, though there may have been partial precedents in Pythagorean thought and usage. And in the Epinomis, which I am inclined to regard either as Plato’s own work or as put together by his Nachlass (unpublished works), we meet with something that is certainly Oriental, and is frankly presented as such, the proposal for public worship of the planets.[14]

The Epinomis, which is either a work of Plato, or his pupil Philip of Opus, is clearly influenced by the Magi. According to the Epinomis, that science which makes men most wise, is astrology. Astrology, claims the author, proffers man with knowledge of numbers, in other words, numerology, without which man cannot attain to a knowledge of virtue. This knowledge, according to the author, belonged originally to the Egyptians and the Syrians, “from when the knowledge has reached to all countries, including our own, after having been tested by thousands of years and time without end.”

However, the great treatise of Kabbalistic thought in the Greek language is the Timaeus. Like the Epinomis, the Timaeus categorizes the purpose of life as to study astrology. But, it is in the Republic that Plato articulates the need for a totalitarian state to be governed by philosopher-kings, who are to be instructed in this pseudo-science. When asked to provide details about this instruction, in last chapter of The Republic, Plato recounts what is called the Myth of Er. Er, the son of an Asian named Armenius, who died in a war but returned to life to act as a messenger from the other world.

Colotes, a philosopher of the third century BC, accused Plato of plagiarism, maintaining that he substituted Er’s name for that of Zoroaster. Clement of Alexandria and Proclus quote from a work entitled On Nature, attributed to Zoroaster, in which he is equated with Er.[15] Quoting the opening of the work, Clement mentions:

Zoroaster, then, writes: “These things I wrote, I Zoroaster, the son of Armenius, a Pamphylian by birth: having died in battle, and been in Hades, I learned them of the gods.” This Zoroaster, Plato says, having been placed on the funeral pyre, rose again to life in twelve days. He alludes perchance to the resurrection, or perchance to the fact that the path for souls to ascension lies through the twelve signs of the zodiac; and he himself says, that the descending pathway to birth is the same. In the same way we are to understand the twelve labours of Hercules, after which the soul obtains release from this entire world.[16]

The Republic provided the basis for all future Illuminati projects, including the elimination of marriage and the family, compulsory education, the use of eugenics by the state, and the employment of deceptive propaganda methods. According to Plato, “all these women shall be wives in common to all the men, and not one of them shall live privately with any man; the children too should be held in common so that no parent shall know which is his own offspring, and no child shall know his parent.” This belief is associated with a need for eugenics, as “the best men must cohabit with the best women in as many cases as possible and the worst with the worst in the fewest, and that the offspring of the one must be reared and that of the other not, if the flock is to be as perfect as possible.” More pernicious still is his prescription for infanticide: “The offspring of the inferior, and any of those of the other sort who are born defective, they will properly dispose of in secret, so that no one will know what has become of them. That is the condition of preserving the purity of the guardians’ breed.”[17]

Compulsory schooling is to be implemented in order to separate children from their parents, to have them indoctrinated in the ideals of the state:

They [philosopher-kings] will begin by sending out into the country all the inhabitants of the city who are more than ten years old, and will take possession of their children, who will be unaffected by the habits of their parents; these they will train in their own habits and laws, I mean in the laws which we have given them: and in this way the State and constitution of which we were speaking will soonest and most easily attain happiness, and the nation which has such a constitution will gain most.[18]

As for propaganda, according to Plato, “Our rulers will find a considerable dose of falsehood and deceit necessary for the good of their subjects”. He further explains, “Rhetoric … is a producer of persuasion for belief, not for instruction in the matter of right and wrong. And so the rhetorician’s business is not to instruct a law court or a public meeting in matters of right and wrong, but only to make them believe; since, I take it, he could not in a short while instruct such a mass of people in matters so important.”

Alexander the Great

In the year 367 BC, at the age of seventeen, Aristotle had become a member of Plato’s Academy, while Eudoxus of Cnidus was its head. And though Aristotle probably did not write the work On the Magi attributed to him, he was convinced that the planets and the fixed stars influenced life on earth. Aristotle, was then the teacher of Alexander the Great, whose conquests incepted what is known as the Hellenistic Age, a period that saw the penetration of Greaco-Kabbalistic culture throughout much of the Mediterranean world.

The Hellenistic Age was also the beginning of the first identifiable contacts between Greeks and Jews. Clearchus of Soli, a disciple of Aristotle, maintained that his master had conversed with a Jew, and that his master claimed that, “as he had lived with many learned men, he communicated to us more information than he received from us.[19]

As well, according to both the Talmud and Josephus’ Antiquities, the High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem, fearing that Alexander would destroy the city, went out to meet him. The narrative describes how Alexander, upon seeing the High Priest, dismounted and bowed to him. In Josephus’ account, when asked by his general, to explain his actions, Alexander answered, “I did not bow before him, but before that God who has honored him with the high Priesthood; for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very apparel.” Alexander interpreted the vision of the High Priest as a good omen and thus spared Jerusalem, peacefully absorbing the Land of Israel into his growing empire. As tribute to his benign conquest, the Sages decreed that the Jewish firstborn of that time be named Alexander, which remains a Jewish name to this very day.[20]

After his death, Alexander’s generals broke up the empire, establishing realms of their own. Antigonus governed Macedonia and Greece. Seleucus became satrap of Babylonia, founding the Seleucid Empire, that at its greatest extent stretched from Bulgaria in Europe to the border of India. Phoenicia, fell to Ptolemy Sotor, who inaugurated the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled Egypt.

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Mithraism

Ancient Armenia and Cilicia

It was in the dissemination of the original Mysteries of Mithras, that we find the first coalescence of those families which would ultimetely produce the leading Illuminati bloodlines. This network was centered around the House of Herod, and included an important Armenian bloodline from Cappadocia, of mixed Alandrian and Persian heritage, a hereditary Syrian priesthood of Baal, and the family of Julius Ceasar. It was these families that were involved first in the formation and spread of the Mithraic cult, and ultimately, in a conspiracy to supplant the Christian Church, which succeded when one of their descendants, Constantine the Great, implemented Catholicism, which was but an assimilation of Mithraism, by associating Jesus with the cult of the dying-god.

While the trail of these relationships are complicated and detailed, it is essential to examine them, in order to properly understand the origin, direction and beliefs of their successors. Initially, the cult of the Magi was most prevalent in that part of Asia Minor, that is, of Armenia, Cappadocia and Pontus. Pontus was founded following the death of Alexander the Great, shortly after 302 BC. As the greater part of this kingdom lay within the immense region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Black Sea, the kingdom as a whole was at first called “Cappadocia towards the Pontus”, but afterwards simply “Pontus”. Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia, but also Colchis, and Lesser Armenia.

Pontus was founded following the death of Alexander the Great, shortly after 302 BC, by Mithradates I, son of Mithradates II of Kios (Mysia), a Persian ruler in the service of Antigonus, one of Alexander’s successors. As the greater part of this kingdom lay within the immense region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Black Sea, the kingdom as a whole was at first called “Cappadocia towards the Pontus”, but afterwards simply “Pontus,” the name Cappadocia being henceforth restricted to the southern half of the region previously included under that title. Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia, but also Colchis, and Lesser Armenia. As Franz Cumont indicated, in Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism:

These two authors agree then in fixing in Asia Minor the origin of this Persian religion that later spread over the Occident, and in fact various indications direct us to that country. The frequency of the name Mithradates, for instance, in the dynasties of Pontus, Cappadocia, Armenia and Commagene, connected with the Achemenides by fictitious genealogies, shows the devotion of those kings to Mithra.[1]

Scholars have refused to accept that Mithraism could have been a formulation from earlier than the first century AD. However, as we have seen, the Mysteries of Dionysus, which influenced Orphism, were in imitation of those practiced by the Magi. Therefore, some primitive form of occult rite must have existed among them. More recently, though, Roger Beck has provided an intermediary theory, in which he proposes that the cult of Mithraism was created in Commagene. Commagene was a small kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, in what had once been part of greater Cappadocia. Its capital city was Samosata, or modern Samsat, near the Euphrates.

Commagene was ruled by a dynasty known as the Orontids. The dynasty was founded by Orontes, who had been appointed by the Persians as “satrap”, or governor of Armenia. In 401 BC, Artaxerxes II, then reigning Emperor of Persia, gave him his daughter Rhodogoune in marriage. Artaxerxes II would have been the grandson of Xerxes, who according to Jewish tradition, married Esther, of the Book of Esther.

In the Book of Esther, Ahasuerus, usually identified with Xerxes, is married to Vashti, whom he puts aside after she rejects his offer to visit him during a feast. Mordecai’s cousin Hadassah is selected from the candidates to be the kings new wife, and she assumes the name of Esther. His prime minister Haman, and his wife Zeresh, plot to have Ahasuerus kill all the Jews, without knowing that Esther is Jewish. Esther warns Ahasuerus of the plot, Haman is hanged, and Mordecai becomes prime minister in his place. However, Ahasuerus’ edict decreeing the murder of the Jews cannot be rescinded, so he issues another edict allowing the Jews to kill their enemies, which they do.

In the late nineteenth century, some critics developed the theory that the Book of Esther was actually a story derived from Babylonian mythology, representing the triumph of the Babylonian deities Marduk and Ishtar over the deities of Elam. Esther is an Aramaic name for the goddess Ishtar. Mordecai means “servant of Marduk”, Marduk being another name for Bel, the chief god of the Babylonians.

The description in the Book of Esther of the parade through the streets dressed in royal robes, the mock combat and other happenings are similar to the Babylonian celebration of the New Year, held in Spring, the original Easter ceremony of the dying-god. This celebration had mock combat between one team representing the old year, and other team representing the New Year, with the old year being hanged in effigy. Apparently, Jews also took part in this New Year celebration, and eventually the story of Esther had been invented to explain the celebration and to turn it into a Jewish celebration, much as Christians were to change pagan holidays into Christian holidays.[2]

In 1923, Dr. Jacob Hoschander wrote The Book of Esther in the Light of History, in which he proposed that the events of the book occurred during the reign of Artaxerxes II, as part of a struggle between adherents of the still monotheistic Zoroastrianism, and those who wanted to bring back the Magian worship of Mithra and Anahita.

Starting from 301 BC, Armenia was included within the sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire. Towards the end of 212 BC, the country was divided between two kings, both vassals of the Seleucids, being Greater Armenia, and Armenia Sophene, which included Commagene or Armenia Minor. Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III the Great, decided to suppress the local dynasties, he besieged Arsamosata. Xerxes surrendered and implored the clemency of the king, whom he accepted as his sovereign. Antiochus gave his sister Antiochis as a wife to Xerxes, who later murdered Xerxes.

The Armenian kingdom of Commagene arose in 162 BC, when its governor Ptolemy broke free from the disintegrating Seleucid Empire. Ptolemy’s mother was a descendant of Alexander and Roxanna, Aesopia the Perdiccid. Aesopia herself was the great-grandmother of Laodice III of Syria, who married Mithradates III of Pontus, who ruled Pontus between 220 and 183 BC. Their daughter, Laodice III of Pontus, married Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III of Syria. In turn, their daughter Antiochis married Xerxes I King of Armenia, a descendant of Artaxerxes II. Their son was Ptolemy.[3]

Ptolemy’s son Mithradates I Callinicus of Commagene embraced the Hellenistic culture and married Laodice, a Seleucid princess. Thus, their son, Antiochus I of Commagene, who lived from 69 BC to 40 BC, could claim dynastical ties with both Alexander the Great and the Persian kings. The combined heritage found in Antiochus led to the assimilation of Mithras with the Greek Hercules, which marked the first early form of the Mithraic cult. As Franz Cumont explained:

This reverence for Persian customs, inherited from legendary ancestors, this idea that piety is the bulwark of the throne and the sole condition of success, is explicitly affirmed in the pompous inscription engraved on the colossal tomb that Antiochus I., Epiphanes, of Commagene (69-34 B.C.), erected on a spur of the mountain-range Taurus, commanding a distant view of the valley of the Euphrates (Figure I). But, being a descendant by his mother of the Seleucidæ of Syria, and supposedly by his father of Darius, son of Hystaspes, the king of Commagene merged the memories of his double origin, and blended together the gods and the rites of the Persians and the Greeks, just as in his own dynasty the name of Antiochus alternated with that of Mithridates.[4]

Antiochus I is said to have practiced astrology of a very esoteric kind, and laid the basis for a calendrical reform, by linking the Commagene year, which till then had been based on the movements of the Moon, to the cycle of the Star of Sirius used by the Egyptians as the basis of their calendar. This would suggest that Antiochus was knowledgeable about an Egyptian manifestation of Magian influence, known as Hermeticism.[5] Antiochus is most famous for founding the sanctuary of Nemrud Dagi, an enormous complex on a mountain-top, featuring giant statues of the king surrounded by gods, each god being a synthesis of Greek and Persian gods, where Apollo is equated with, Mithras, Helios and Hermes. The gods are flanked a lion and an eagle. The lion may be the lion of Judah, representing Jewish heritage, while the eagle is the heraldic symbol of the Tribe of Dan, representing another line of Jewish heritage from the Greeks, the descendants of Danaus, by way through Alexander the Great.

Nemrud Daghi

Scholars dismiss the fact that this cult could represent an early form of Mithraism. However, Mithridates VI of Pontus, the grandson of Mithridates III, who ruled between 120 and 63 BC, was allied to the pirates of Cilicia, a province bordering Commagene. According to Plutarch, who lived in the first century AD, these pirates were responsible for transmitting the mysteries of Mithras to the Romans. According to Plutarch, these were the pirates who constituted such a threat to Rome until Pompey drove them from the seas. In his biography of this general, Plutarch writes of the pirates: “They brought to Olympus in Lycia strange offerings and performed some secret mysteries, which still in the cult of Mithras, first made known by them [the pirates]”.

Mithradates, meaning “gift of Mithras”, was one of Rome’s most formidable and successful enemies. His demise is detailed in the play Mithridates of 1673 by Jean Racine, which formed the basis for many eighteenth century operas, including one of Freemason Mozart’s earliest, known most commonly by its Italian name, Mitridate, re di Ponto, written in 1770. When Mithradates VI was defeated by the Roman general Pompey the Great in 65 BC, in the last of a series of three Mithridatic Wars, remnants of his army took refuge among the Cilician pirates. In the middle of the second century A.D. the historian Appian adds that the pirates came to know of the mysteries from the troops who were left behind by the defeated army of Mithridates VI.[6]

The Mithraic Bloodline

The House of Commagene combined with the family of Herod the Great, the Syrian priest-kings of Baal, and the family of Julius Caesar, who took the early symbolism of the Mithra worship of the heretical Magi, and combined it with the emerging Kabbalistic mysticism, to form the Mysteries of Mithras. Essentially, the Mithraic mysteries adapted the ancient king-worship of the Babylonians, to the worship of the emperor, as a personification of their god the Sun. Through the influence of the Commagenian dynasty, this cult retained its Persian themes, but represented its god Mithras with the physical form of Alexander the Great, their progenitor.

The reciprocal worship attributed to Alexander and Darius as representatives of god as the Sun, is mentioned in a work falsely ascribed to Callisthenes, an advisor to Alexander. The text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages, and provided the basis for other versions developed in all the major languages of Europe and the Middle East. According to the text:

Alexander then seeing the great pomp of Darius was moved almost to worship him as Mithra the divine, as though clothed in barbaric splendor he had come down from heaven, - such was his splendid array. Darius was seated upon a lofty throne, with a crown of most precious stones, wearing a robe of Babylonian silk inwoven with golden thread.

[according to the Syriac version] And when Darius saw Alexander he did obeisance and worshipped Alexander, for he believed that he was Mihr [Mithras] the god, and that he had come down to bring aid to the Persians. For his raiment was like that of the gods, and the crown with rested upon his head shone with rays of light and the robe with he wore was woven with fine gold.[7]

The person through which the House of Commagene was able to enter into contact with that of Herod, in addition to the family of Julius Ceasar, to produce the Mithraic bloodline, which went on to produce the leading conspiratorial families of Europe, was Antiochus IV. Antiochus IV’s great-grandfather, Antiochus I of Commagene had supported Pompey against the Parthians, and in 64 BC was rewarded with additional territories. After submitting to Greek rule under the Seleucids, the Persian Empire eventually reemerged under the Parthians, a semi-nomadic people who, in the second century BC, arose from an area southeast of the Caspian Sea. It was ruled by the Arsacids, who claimed descent from the Persian king Artaxerxes II. Through the conquests of Mithradates I and Artabanus II in the second century BC, the Parthians established control over Iran and expanded westward into Mesopotamia.

Antiochus I of Commagene had supported Pompey against the Parthians, and in 64 BC was rewarded with additional territories. After submitting to Greek rule under the Seleucids, the Persian Empire eventually reemerged under the Parthians, a semi-nomadic people who, in the second century BC, arose from an area southeast of the Caspian Sea. It was ruled by the Arsacids, who claimed descent from the Persian king Artaxerxes II. Through the conquests of Mithradates I and Artabanus II in the second century BC, the Parthians established control over Iran and expanded westward into Mesopotamia.

Antiochus I was able to deflect Roman attacks from Mark Antony, whom he eventually joined in the Roman civil war, but after Antony’s defeat to Augustus, Commagene was made a Roman client state. This state of affairs signaled the beginning of the relationships that led to the transference of the Mithraic cult to Rome.

Augustus was the first of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, who ruled the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 68 AD, beginning with Augustus, followed by Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, until the last of the line, Nero, who committed suicide. The dynasty is so named because its members were drawn from the Julia and the Claudius family. Julia derive their name from Iulus, or Julus, also known as Ascanius, who, according to Greek and Roman mythology, was a son of Aeneas, himself the son of Aphrodite, the Greek Venus, and the cousin of Priam. The name “Ascanius” is thought to have been derived from Ashkenazi, or Ashkuza, the name given to the Scytians by the ancient Akkadians.[8] After the Trojan War, Ascanius escaped to Latium in Italy and had a role in the founding of Rome as the first king of Alba Longa. The founder of the dynasty, Caesar Augustus, was a Julian through his adoption by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar.

In 17 AD, Tiberius deposed Antiochus’ successor, Antiochus III, but Caligula reinstated his son Antiochus IV of Commagene, who even enlarged his territory. And, although Caligula deposed him shortly after, he was restored by Claudius in in 41 AD. In 52 AD, Antiochus campaigned against some wild tribes there which had been harrowing the coastal cities. And Beck considers that, “it is worth considering whether the germination of the Mysteries might not have taken place when Commagenean and Cilician Mithra-worship coalesced at the exposure of Commagenean administrators and military to the rites of the Cilician tribes.”

Antiochus IV’s associate, Caligula, was influenced by the Babylonian or Mithraic tradition of worshipping the king as embodiment of the sun-god, and cult which he tried to institute in the Roman Empire. Caligula was described, by H. H. Scullard, a former professor of ancient history at King’s College, as a “monster of lust and diabolical cruelty”.[9] According to an article in Wikipedia:

Under Augustus, the Cult of the Deified Emperor had been established and promoted, especially in the western empire, and was generally the first organization established in any new Roman colony. Augustus proclaimed on multiple occasions that he was not himself personally divine; instead the Cult centered around his numen, his personal spirit, and gens, the collective spirit of his family and ancestors. After Augustus, Tiberius seems to have had little interest in the Cult, and its promulgation and expansion seems to have been on a local level and driven by local magistrates, rather than from a central organizational structure. Caligula expanded this Cult on an unprecedented scale. The temple of Castor and Pollux on the Forum was linked directly to the Imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula himself; he would appear here on occasions, dressed and presenting himself as a god, and demanding that those in his presence adopt sycophantic methods of aknowledging him. The nature of the Cult of the Deified Emperor changed from honoring the spirits around the Emperor to direct worship of Caligula himself. Likewise, Caligula's policies affected religious practice in the whole of the Empire, not just those practices associated with the Cult. The heads of the statues of many of the gods throughout Rome and the empire were replaced with Caligula's head, including many of the female statues, and Caligula demanded that he be worshipped as an embodiment of these gods, similar to the Hellenistic ruler-cults. A plan to place a statue of himself as Zeus in the Holy of Holies in the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was halted only after the intervention of Herod Agrippa, a personal friend of Caligula.[10]

Caligula, like Antiochus IV, was also a close friend of Herod Agrippa, king of Judea, also called the Great, who lived from 10 BC to 44 AD. Herod Agrippa was the king named “Herod” in the Acts of the Apostles, in the Bible. He was the grandson of Herod the Great, rebuilder of the Temple. Herod the Great arose from a wealthy, influential Idumaean family. The Idumaeans were successors to the Edomites, who had settled in Edom in southern Judea, but between 130-140 BC, were required to convert to Judaism. According to Josephus, after the murder of his father, young Agrippa was sent by Herod the Great to the imperial court in Rome. There, Tiberius conceived a great affection for him, and he eventually became a close friend of Caligula. And on the assassination of Caligula in 41AD, Agrippa’s advice helped to secure the ascension as emperor Claudius, who was also the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, and who eventually made Herod Agrippa governor of Judea.

Along with Commagene and the Julio-Claudian families, a third would be introduced into this mix, which would feature in not only the creation of Mithraism, but its continued preservation through the centuries, culminating in the Illuminati families of Europe. That family was the hereditary priest-kings of Emesa. The Royal Family of Emesa, today Hims in Syria, was a dynasty of Priest-Kings who formed a powerful and influential aristocracy. Emesa was renowned for the Temple of the Sun, known as Elagabalus, a derivation of Baal, adored in a shape of a black stone. Around 64 BC, Pompey the Great had reorganized Syria and the surrounding countries into Roman Provinces, and had installed client kings, who would be allies to Rome. One of those client kings, would be Sampsiceramus, the founding member of the Priest-King dynasty of Emesa.

Herod Agrippa gave his sister Drusilla in marriage to Azizus, King of Emesa. She had already been married to Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus I of Commagene. However, Herod had stipulated that Epiphanes should embrace the Jewish religion. Epiphanes finally refused. Azizus, in order to obtain Drusilla’s hand, consented to be circumcised. She later divorced him, though, to marry Felix Antonius, the Procurator of Judea.

In 54 AD, after the death of Claudius, and during political strife within Armenia, the Parthian king Vologases I, the great-great-grandson of Antiochus I of Commagene, placed his own brother Tiridates I on the Armenian throne. This invariably led to war, since it was Rome, and not Parthia who held the right of Armenian succession. Over the next several years, Roman legions, led by the general Corbulo, invaded Armenia and the two powers fought a virtual stalemate.

From 59 to 63 AD, the Romans installed Tigranes VI as King of Armenia. Tigranes was son of Alexander, the grandson of Herod the Great. His mother was the great-granddaughter of Mark Antony and Antonia. Tigranes VI married Julia, the heiress of the Edomite royal bloodline, the daughter of Herod Phollio King of Chalcis, grandson of Herod the Great. Their son Alexander of Cilicia married Iotape of Commagene, the daughter of Antiochus IV.

By AD 63, however, a peace treaty was negotiated in which Tiridates would lay down his crown, hence surrendering the Parthian right to place him on the throne, but it was agreed that he would travel to Rome where Nero himself would give him the throne under Roman authority. At the coronation Tiridates declared that he had come “in order to revere you [Nero] as Mithras”.[11] In the same visit, according to Pliny, Tiridates “the Magus” brought Magi with him and “initiated him [Nero] into magical feasts”.[12]

Fifteenth Apollonian Legion

These several families also contributed to the Roman attempt to suppress a the Jewish revolt in Palestine, which culminated in the capture of Jerusalem. It was among the Roman troops who participated in this campaign that we find the first dissemination of Kabbalistic ideas in the form of mysteries dedicated to Mithras, and attributed to the Magi. Between the years 67 to 70 AD, the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion, which had followed Corbulo against the Parthians in Armenia, was sent to Palestine to suppress the Jewish revolt. The Fifteenth Apollonian legion of the Roman army was originally formed by Julius Caesar in 53 BC, but was destroyed in Africa in the autumn of 49/48 BC. The legion was again founded in 41 or 40 BC, by Caesar’s heir Octavian, who chose the surname Apollinaris, because he worshipped Apollo above all other gods.

Under Roman occupation, though rebellion had been sporadic, disturbances among the Jews were frequent. Soon, the Roman procurator Florus lost control of the situation. However, in 67 AD, the future emperor Vespasian and his son Titus, had arrived with the Apollonian legion, and by the end of the year, Galilee was captured. Judea was reduced in three campaigns which ended with the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD, when 97,000 Jews, according to Josephus, were taken captive.[13]

Jerusalem was destroyed and became the permanent garrison town of a Roman legion. The Temple itself was sacked and the sacred contents of its inner sanctuary, the Holy of Holies, were carried back to Rome. As depicted on Titus’ triumphal arch, these treasures included the immense gold seven-branched candelabrum, so sacred to Judaism, and possibly even the Ark of the Covenant.

The Apollonian legion then accompanied Emperor Titus to Alexandria, where they were joined by new recruits from Cappadocia. It seems to have been a curious mix of these several elements, after the Legion had been transported to Germany, that erected their first temple dedicated to Mithras on the banks of the Danube.[14]

The Romans’ allies in suppressing the revolt had also included, not only Herod Agrippa, and Antiochus VI of Commagene, but Soaemus of Emesa. Soaemus was the grandson of Aristobulus II of Emesa, the grandson of Herod the Great, who married Iotape, the daughter of Sampsiceramus, the founding king of Emesa. As Beck noted, Commagenian military elements, under royal command, were also engaged in the suppression of the Jewish Revolt, and there would have been extensive contact with Roman legionary and other troops, including those units identified among the earlier carriers of the new mystery cult, like the Fifteenth Apollonian. According to Beck, therefore, “what I propose, then, is that the Mysteries of Mithras were developed within a subset of these Commagenian soldiers and family-retainers and were transmitted by them at various points of contact to their counterparts in the Roman world.”[15]

Antiochus IV reigned until 72 AD, when Vespasian deposed the dynasty. The dynasty, after its deposition, was resident for a period in Rome. As Beck points out, “Antiochus was no stranger to the city; it was presumably there that, together with Herod Agrippa of Judaea, he “associated with” (syneinai) Caligula, a relationship which the Romans observed with dismay, considering the pair of client princes “mentors in tyranny”[16]

Specifically, Beck attributes the formulation of the Mithraic cult to Ti. Claudius Balbillus, who was both the leading astrologer of the period in Rome, and related by marriage, possibly by blood too, to the Commagenian dynasty. Balbillus had also been a prefect of Egypt, and served as head of the Museum and Library of Alexandria. It is generally agreed that Balbillus was the father in law of Iulius Antiochus Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus IV. Scholars also accept that Balbillus was the son of the leading astrologer of the previous generation, Ti. Claudius Thrasyllus, who may also have married Commagenian princess.

The Mysteries of Mithras

Though the Mysteries of the Mithras that came to pervade the Roman world were purportedly of Magian origin, the role of the House of Herod in its formation suggests a possible origin for the evident relationship that exists between them and the emerging form of early Jewish Kabbalah, known as Merkabah mysticism. An important source for the early penetration of these ideas, and which would continue to play an central role in the of dissemination of “Eastern” occult influences to the Western world, through to the time of the Crusades, and finally, the links between European secret societies and Islamic terrorism in our time, would be Egypt.

Although Rome came to dominate the scene politically, it was the city of Alexandria in Egypt, that would continue to dominate culturally. Due to the numerous cultures that congregated in the city, whether Egyptian, Greek, Persian, Indian or Jewish, new esoteric creeds were formulated based on older traditions. These various schools held in common a type of mysticism, which some scholars term Gnosticism. More correctly, these variations represented aspects of a single school, that is, Kabbalah, exercised through the influence of the substantial Jewish community that existed in the city. As Franz Cumont remarked, a great number of Jewish colonies were scattered everywhere on the Mediterranean, and “the Jews, who were acquainted with the arcana of the Irano-Chaldean doctrines and proceedings, made some of the recipes known wherever the dispersion brought them.”[17]

Founded when Alexander assigned them a quarter of the city of their own, it became the most important Jewish community of the Diaspora. The Roman geographer Strabo, who said that the Jews were a power throughout the inhabited world, indicated that there were a million of them in Egypt alone. They formed a majority of the population in two out of five quarters of the city, occupied a quarter of their own, and enjoyed the highest status of any non-Greeks and possessed considerable autonomy.

A mystical Jewish sect existed at Alexandria, known as the Therapeutae, who were related to the more famous group, the Essenes. The Essenes were one of three main philosophical Jewish sects, the other two being the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The Essenes were regarded by their contemporaries as the heirs of Chaldean and Egyptian astronomy, and the medicine of the ancient Persians, and Philo of Alexandria compared them with the Persian Magi and the Indian Yogi.[18]

Today, more is known since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which scholars are generally agreed belonged originally the Essene community. According to Scholem, a leading scholar of Kabbalah, it was in apocalyptic literature, examples of which were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, that contained the earliest evidence among the Jews of the development of Merkabah mysticism, the earliest definite appearance of Kabbalistic ideas in Judaism.

Early Jewish mysticism already incorporated the several tenets that were central to the cult of the Magi, including astrology, numerology and pantheism. However, it is in Merkabah mysticism that we find the first evolution of that doctrine which would become central to all the schools of Hellenistic mysticism, the ascent through the seven palaces. This mystical process involved the initiate advancing successively through the seven planetary spheres, in order to remove the astrological influence his soul had received from them on his descent into matter.

The purpose of Merkabah mysticism is union with the highest god, interpreted as the vision the Chariot of God, described in the first chapter of the Book of Ezekiel. Supporting the chariot, Ezekiel described four “creatures”, each with a human body, two sets of wings and cloven feet like that of a calf. Each creature had four faces, of a man, lion, ox and eagle, understood esoterically to represent the four seasons and elements. The man is Aquarius or air, the lion is Leo or fire, the ox is Taurus or earth, and the eagle is Scorpio or water. The four wings are the four winds. The creatures are set on wheels, each like “a wheel inside a wheel,” referring to the intersection of the zodiac and the celestial equator.

Merkabah texts involved elaborate anthropomorphic descriptions of God, known as Shiur Komah, which were based on the Song of Solomon. The most important of all Kabbalistic texts, and from which most of its symbolism is derived, the Song of Solomon, or Song of Songs, is a collection of love poems spoken alternately by a man and a woman, a number of which describe the beauty and excellence of the beloved. To Rabbi Akiva, the great exponent of Merkabah, as for later Jews, the Song was regarded as an allegory, interpreted as a dialogue of love between the Shekinah, the nation of the Israelites, with whom God has made His sacred covenant, and God. The beloved, or the Shekinah, is the Kabbalah’s interpretation of the goddess. In the Song she is described as bride, daughter and sister. Originally, she is the planet Venus, the goddess of love and war of Antiquity.

If Mithraism was developed for the House of Commagene, then the Kabbalistic elements of Merkabah found in it must have been introduced by the House of Herod. Herod Agrippa also gave special favor to the Essenes. Herod Agrippa also gave special favor to the Essenes. From Flavius Josephus, we learn:

Among those spared from being forced [to take a loyalty oath to Herod] were those we call Essenes . . . . It is worth saying what caused [Herod] to honor the Essenes. There was a certain Essene whose name was Manaemus . . . . This man once saw Herod when the latter, still a boy, was on the way to his teacher's house, and addressed him as 'King of the Jews.' Herod thought he was ignorant or joking and reminded him that he was a private citizen. But Manaemus smiled gently and tapped him with his hand on the rump, saying: 'But indeed you will be king and you will rule happily, for you have been found worthy by God.[19]

Through the influence of the priest-kings of Emesa, Mithraism retained its roots in Baal worship. Essentially, the Mithraic mysteries combined the occult mystery rites originally practiced in Babylon, and adapted by the Magi, to the worship of the emperor, as a personification of their god the Sun. Through the influence of the Commagenian dynasty, this cult retained its Persian themes, but visualized its god Mithras in the physical form of Alexander the Great, their progenitor.

The ascent through the seven “palaces”, or planets, of Merkabah mysticism seems to have been introduced to the primitive mystery rites the heretical Magi, forming the Roman Mysteries of Mithras, spread far and wide by the Roman soldiers, and through Mithraism, to the other schools of Hellenistic mysticism. Ezekiel’s vision held striking similarities to the Mithraic image of the Leontocephalus, as well as to the Orphic Phanes.

According to the Orphic Theogonies, Phanes, identified with Kronos, or Time, and equated with Saturn, is described as “a serpent having heads growing upon him of a bull and a lion, and in the middle the face of a god; and he has also wings upon his shoulders, and is called ageless Time, and Herakles the same.” In Orpheus and Greek Religion, W.K.C. Guthrie remarked that, “the depicting of ageless Time himself in this form shows correspondences with Oriental, and in particular with Persian religion, which are too detailed and exact to be passed over.”[20]

Much like the “creatures” that support the chariot in Ezekiel, the Leontocephalus is usually depicted as a lion-headed youth, covered in Zodiac signs, with two sets of wings, the feet of a goat, and coiled by a serpent. The Leontocephalus was depicted standing on a globe, on which there are two circles intersecting each other, the “wheel inside a wheel”, which Celsus explained, “is a symbol of the two orbits in heaven, the one being that of the fixed stars and the other that assigned to the planets.”

Ultimately, reserved for the highest-ranking members, and representing the ultimate mystery, the Leontocephalus was equated with Mithras, Phanes and Ahriman, the Zoroastrian devil, all as one god. Macrobius recorded that, according to Orpheus: “one Zeus, one Hades [Greek god of the Underworld], one Sun, one Dionysus.”[21] The Leontocephalus has also been identified with Saturn. In Armenian texts Saturn is called Zurvan[22], and according to Ptolemy, the people of Persia and Mesopotamia “worship the star of Aphrodite [Venus], naming it Isis, and the star of Kronos [Saturn] as Mithras Helios.”[23] Saturn, known as the nocturnal Sun, and “Pluto”, Porphyry explained, “is the Sun going beneath the earth and voyaging round the invisible world…”

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Gnosticism

The House of Herod

 

The House of Herod seems to been involved in a plot to subvert the emerging Christian movement, by altering its doctrines to conform with their own mystery doctrines, featuring the death of and resurrection of a god, known as the Son of God. According to the Gospel of Mark, “Be careful,” Jesus warned them his disciples. “Watch out for the yeast of the Pharisees and that of Herod.”[1] The power of the Pharisees was exercise through the Sanhedrin. The Sanhedrin was originally instituted when Moses was commanded as follows:

...Gather to me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom you know to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them to the Tent of Meeting, that they may stand there with you.[2]

God commanded Moses to “lay hands”, a rite of ordination known Semicha, on Joshua. It is from this point, according to Rabbinic tradition, that the Sanhedrin began, with seventy elders, headed by Moses, for a total of seventy-one. However, before the second century first century AD, the Sanhedrin lost all significance when a powerful monarch was at the helm. In 47, however, Hyrcanus II was appointed Ethnarch of the Jews, a man devoted to the cause of the Pharisees, and the Sanhedrin was reorganized according to their wishes.

One of the first acts of the now all-powerful assembly was to pass judgment upon Herod the Great, accused of cruelty in his government. Therefore, when Herod established his power at Jerusalem in 37 BC, forty-five of his former judges were put to death. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, though Herod allowed Sanhedrin to continue, “this new Sanhedrin, filled with his creatures, was henceforth utilized as a mere tool at his beck”.[3]

Interestingly, a second and distinct meaning of Semicha, practiced by the Sanhedrin, is the laying of hands upon an offering of a sacrifice in the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. This involved pressing firmly on the head of the sacrificial animal, thereby symbolically “transmitting” sins onto the animal.[4] It would seem, therefore, that the Sanhedrin had conspired to kill Jesus as a form of ritual sacrifice, and as atonement for their sins. This is in keeping with Kabbalistic and Mithraic doctrines, perpetuated by the House of Herod, whereby human sacrifice was an act pleasing to their god, and was believed to liberate the devotee from sin, that is, from obedience to God.

According to the New Testament, it was the Sanhedrin which conspired to have Jesus killed, by paying one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, thirty pieces of silver in exchange for delivery of the into their hands. And yet, when Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin heard of Jesus’ death, he requested from Pilate permission to remove the body. Joseph of Arimathea then retrieved the body, and placed it in his own tomb, which was witnessed by Mary Magdalene and “the other Mary”. Then, according to Matthew 27:57-66:

The next day, the chief priests and the Pharisees went to Pilate. “Sir,” they said, “we remember that while he was still alive that deceiver said, “After three days I will rise again.” So give the order for the tomb to be made secure until the third day. Otherwise, his disciples may come and steal the body and tell the people that he has been raised from the dead. This last deception will be worse than the first.” “Take a guard,” Pilate answered. “Go, make the tomb as secure as you know how.” So they went and made the tomb secure by putting a seal on the stone and posting the guard.

By this time, Joseph of Arimathea would have already removed the body, and conspired with the two Marys to spread the message that Jesus had resurrected from the dead. However, according the Gospel of Barnabas, it was not Jesus that was crucified, but Judas in his place. This is a tradition preserved as well in the Koran. The Gospel of Barnabas explains, “Those disciples who did not fear God went by night [and] stole the body of Judas and hid it, spreading a report that Jesus was risen again; whence great confusion arose.”[5]

Those disciples mentioned in the Gospels as spreading this message were again the two Marys but also Salome. Mary Magdalene is usually identified as the women out of which Jesus exorcised seven demons, or with Mary of Bethany and the woman sinner, who anointed Jesus’ feet. She is also identified with the adulterous woman he saved from stoning by the Pharisees. But is Mary Magdalene came to be identified prostitution, it is because of an esoteric interpretation which regards her as a “sacred prostitute” to officiate at the mysteries, or as consort to the “son of god”, as she is featured in the Gnostic texts.

There is some contention as to the exact identity of Salome, who appears briefly in the canonical gospels, and who appears in more detail in apocryphal writings. However, Salome was the step-daughter of Herod Antipas, and danced before Herod and her mother Herodias at the occasion of Herod’s birthday, and by doing so caused the death of John the Baptist. According to Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities:

Herodias, [...], was married to Herod, the son of Herod the Great, who was born of Mariamne, the daughter of Simon the high priest, who had a daughter, Salome; after whose birth Herodias took upon her to confound the laws of our country, and divorced herself from her husband while he was alive, and was married to Herod, her husband's brother by the father’s side, he was tetrarch of Galilee; but her daughter Salome was married to Philip, the son of Herod, and tetrarch of Trachonitis; and as he died childless, Aristobulus, the son of Herod, the brother of Agrippa, married her; they had three sons, Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulus.[6]

The purpose of this mission would be that, to the unwitting masses, Jesus would be interpreted as the “Son of God”, and believed to have died and risen again. To those initiates who could be duped into higher levels, however, they would be instructed of the real meaning of the interpretation, where Jesus was equated as the enemy of their “god”, and believed to have been killed as a form of ritual sacrifice. This esoteric interpretation came to be known as Gnosticism, and became the basis through which the Western occult tradition subverted Christianty, and secretly inculcated the worship of Lucifer.

Paul the Gnostic

The man responsible for the introduction of a Gnostic interpretation into Christianity, though he was otherwise thought to have been its enemy, was Paul. Though usually judged to be separate traditions, the various schools that evolved from Alexandrian mysticism, were all related, and represented branches of the mysteries, in particular, the Mysteries of Mithras. The alchemical symbolism of Mithraism was found in Hermeticism, said to derive from a supposed ancient Egyptian sage known as Hermes Trismegistus. The interpretation of these mysteries was offered in a school of philosophy known as Neoplatonism, believed to derive originally from Plato. When these ideas were melded to the emerging Christian movement, they produced the heresy of Gnosticism.

In order to worship evil, it is first necessary to elevate it to the level of a god, a notion which the Gnostics borrowed from the primitive dualism of the pagans. According to doctrines of Gnosticism, from which the entire Western occult tradition derives its source, the Bible is to be interpreted in reverse. Though he was a lesser god, in the pantheon of pagan gods, God sought to proclaim himself the sole god. Therefore, God, who created the world, is evil. After having created humanity, he was oppressive in his insistence of rules of morality. Supposedly then, it is the devil, or Lucifer, identified with the dying-god, who “liberated” man by instructing him in the truth: the Kabbalah.

The followers of Jesus had persisted in Jerusalem, where they were known as the Early Church, or Nazarenes, and were headed by James, the “brother of the Lord”. In accordance with the mission of Jesus, according to Matthew, they were strict adherents of the Law. On the contrary, Paul imposed a mystical interpretation of the religion, whereby Jesus was equated with the dying-god of the mysteries, who was believed to have died for the sins of mankind, and therefore, it was permitted not to follow the ancient Law. Thus, Paul’s Gentile converts were permitted to reject circumcision. It was this matter that brought him into direct conflict with the Early Church of Jerusalem, who attempted to suppress his deviations.

Paul seems to have been part of a conspiracy on the part of the House of Herod, as the keepers of a mystery tradition, in the form of Mithraism, to subvert the emerging Christian movement, by conforming it to their occult doctrines. Paul was from Tarsus, the capitol city of Cilicia, the very hub of the intrigues that produced the Mithraic religion. In addition, according to Robert Eisenmen, in Paul as a Herodian, there is evidence, in the New Testament, early Church literature, Rabbinic literature, and Josephus, to suggest some connection between Paul and so-called “Herodians.” Eisenmen concludes:

Though these matters are hardly capable of proof, and we have, in fact, proved nothing, still no other explanations better explain the combination of points we raise. One thing cannot be denied, Paul’s Herodian connections make the manner of his sudden appearances and disappearances, his various miraculous escapes, his early power in Jerusalem, his Roman citizenship, his easy relations with kings and governors, and the venue and terms of his primary missionary activities comprehensible in a manner no other reconstruction even approaches.[7]

According to Eisenmen, Paul’s rejection of the Law is representative of the liberal attitudes of the Herodians to religious law, and their pro-Roman policies. Paul speaks in an unguarded moment in Rom 16:11 of his “kinsman Herodion.” The reference immediately preceding the one to “Herodion” in Rom 16:10, i.e., is to a certain “household of Aristobulus,” being that there were two or three Aristobuluses in the Herodian family, from different lines living at the same time.

In particular, Paul’s repudiation of the Law rejected the necessity of circumcision for converts. This was an issue particularly sensitive for the Herodians, who were in the practice of forging various dynastic alliances with non-Jews in Cilicia and Lower Armenia, and probably including Commagene. In addition to Drusilla, there was also the case of Monobazus’ mother Helen, Queen of Adiabene, later part of Armenia, and Polemos of Cilicia, whom Bernice, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, divorced after he was circumcised. Thus, explains Eisenmen, Paul arrives with funds gathered in overseas fund-raising from many of the areas into which Herodians have expanded and, in part because of this, those areas where circumcision had become such an issue because of the marital practices of Herodian princesses. He notes:

The “Christian” community in Antioch, where Christians were first called Christians (Acts 11:26) — a suitable locale for the crystallization of this terminology — comprises, even according to Acts’ dubious historical reckoning, various persons of this “Herodian” mix. Among these one should include the curious “Niger” “Lucius of Cyrene,” who was very likely none other than Paul’s other famous traveling companion Luke, and “Manaen who was a foster-brother of Herod the Tetrarch” (Acts 13:1).[8]

Following an unsuccessful conspiracy among forty Jews to assassinate Saint Paul, the Romans decided to send him to Felix in Caesarea. After the death of Herod, Judea was once more added to the great Roman province of Syria to be presided over by governors. Felix was originally a slave, but manumitted and promoted by Caesar, and appointed governor of Judea in 52 AD, and stayed in office until 58 AD. Felix was reputed to be a very cruel and lustful man. Felix was first married to Drusilla, the daughter of Ptolemy King of Mauritania, the grandson of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, but later divorced her to marry another Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, after she had already been married to Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus IV of Commagene, and then to Azizus, Kind of Emesa.[9]

Before Felix, Paul was merely asked from which province he had come. Five days later, the high priest Ananias and some of the Sanhedrin appeared, with Tertullus as their advocate.[10] They made charges, which Paul denied. Felix delayed the proceeding further until Claudias Lysias, the captain of the Roman troops in Jerusalem, could come to give evidence. After a few days, Felix’ wife, Drusilla, the Jewess, wanted to see and hear Paul. Paul appeared and gave the gospel to Felix and Drusilla. Felix trembled but was unrepentant. He wanted a bribe from Paul so did not acquit him. Felix kept Paul a prisoner in Caesarea, under loose house arrest, for two years until the arrival of Festus, the new governor.

Eisenmen makes note that it is very unlikely that Paul could have made the miraculous escapes he does without the support of the Herodians and their Roman sponsors. As in, for example, the attack on Paul in the Temple and his rescue by Roman soldiers witnessing these events from the Fortress of Antonia.[11] This episode, too, makes mention of a nephew and possibly a sister of Paul, resident in Jerusalem, but also presumably carrying Roman citizenship, who warn him of a plot by “zealots for the Law” to kill him. Without this kind of intervention, Paul could never have enjoyed the protection he does in Caesarea, and retired to Rome in such security.

Eisenmen also points out that there is reference in Josephus about a member of the Herodian family named “Saulus”, which was not a common name in the period. This Saulus plays a key role in events leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. This Saulus is not only the intermediary between “the men of Power [the Herodians], the principal of the Pharisees, the chief priests, and all those desirous for peace”, in other words, peace with the Romans. Josephus also describes him as “a kinsman of Agrippa.” The mention of Saulus’ relation to “the chief priests” parallels material in Acts, relating to Saul’s commission from the chief priest to arrest “Christians”.

In addition, the Valentinians, chief among the early Gnostic groups, claimed it have received their doctrines from Theudas, a disciple of Paul. Elaine Pagels points out:

Instead of repudiating Paul as their obstinate opponent, the Naassenes and Valentinians revere him as the one of the apostles who, above all others, was himself a Gnostic initiate. The Valentinians, in particular, allege that their secret tradition offers direct access to Paul’s own teaching of wisdom and gnosis. According to Clement “they say that Valentinus was a hearer of Theudas, and Theudas, in turn, a disciple of Paul.”[12]

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The Anglo-Saxons

Britain

King Arthur

Though Joseph of Arimathea had already prepared his own tomb, because he was “waiting for the Kingdom of God”, in which he chose to bury Jesus, he lives on for at least another thirty years, and supposedly, around the year 63 AD, he was said to have travelled to England. In the eighth century, Rabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mayence, stated in the Life of Mary Magdalene that Joseph of Arimathea was sent to Britain, and he goes on to detail who traveled with him as far as France, claiming that he was accompanied by, in addition to Mary Magdalene and Lazarus, and again, Salome.[1] With him was the “Holy Grail”, which he concealed for safekeeping at Glastonbury Tor, where he established the first church in Britain Isles, which developed into Glastonbury Abbey. His descendants would eventually culminate in the person of King Arthur.

The prominence of Britain in this tale is a mark of its long-standing affiliation with the practice of the occult. The Britons traced their descent to Brutus, grandson of Ascanius, who in turn was supposedly descended from Zerah. Scholars have in fact speculated that the Phoenicians ventured as far as Britain to exploit the tin trade. In addition, according to ancient Chronicles of Ireland, this lineage of the Britons was supplemented in the sixth century BC, with the royal blood of the House of David, resulting in the kings of Scotland.

Irish legend maintains that the Scottish originate from Fenius Farsaidh, a descendant of Edom, who founded kingdom of Scythia in the fourteenth century BC.[2] Fenius’ son Nel married Scota, an Egyptian princess. Thus explaining why the name Scoti was applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, and later to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia, which became known as Scotland. Scota and Nel had a son, Goidel Glas, the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels, who was expelled from Egypt shortly after the Exodus of the Israelites by a pharaoh. After much traveling, his descendants settled in Hispania, also known as Iberia, or modern Spain and Portugal, where Mil Espaine was born. It was the sons of Mil, Eber Finn and Eremon, who established the Gaelic presence in Ireland.[3]

According to the ancient Irish, Scottish, and English Chronicles, in or about the year 583-582 BC, a princess called “Tamar Tephi” came from Egypt by way of Spain, and landed on the northeast coast of Ireland. When the Jews were persecuted by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, Mattaniah, the son of King Josiah, and a direct descendant of King David, was installed in Judah. Known as King Zedekiah, he acceded to the throne of Jerusalem in 598 BC. Twelve years later, Jerusalem fell to Nebuchadnezzar, whereupon Zedekiah was taken to Babylon and blinded, and his sons were murdered, except for his daughter Tamar.

Tamar, it is said, arrived with an aged man named Ollam Fodhla, and his secretary, one Simon Brug. These have been identified with the prophet Jeremiah, his scribe Baruch, and Princess Tamar, the daughter of Zedekiah, who eventually traveled to Sicily, Spain, possibly even Norway and Denmark, and later, Ireland. Tamar married one of the later Irish Kings, Eochaid I, from which all the High Kings of Ireland descend. She and her companions brought with them a mysterious chest, supposedly the Ark of the Covenant, and a golden-colored banner, emblazoned with the heraldic device of a red Lion, or the Lion of Judah, and the Stone of Destiny.[4] The Stone of Destiny, or the Stone of the Covenant, became known as Lia Fail. It is believed to be the original Pillar that Jacob dedicated to God after his all-night wrestling vigil with an angel. The Stone was installed at the stronghold at the Hill of Tara, where it served as the place of coronation for all the early Irish kings.

Druid

As early as the first centuries AD, it was believed that the Celts learned the arts of the Magi through the students of Pythagoras.[5] According to Pliny the Elder, in the first century AD, magic, meaning the cult of the Magi, was so entrenched in Britain that he said it would almost seem as if it was the British who had taught it to the Babylonians, and not the other way around.[6]

Magian, or Kabbalistic, teachings are clearly discernable among the Druids, who were particularly concerned with astronomy, or astrology, practiced vegetarianism, believed in reincarnation, and worshipped Dis, or Pluto, the god of the Underworld. Even after Patrick had converted the Irish to Christianity, the teachings of the Druids were never completely abandoned, but instead a unique culture developed, known as Celtic Christianity. Essentially, the arts of the Druids survived early Irish Christianity, as its abundant hagiography, steeped in magical ideas, plainly shows. Saint Columba, abbot and missionary traditionally credited with the main role in the conversion of Scotland to Christianity, after becoming a monk, lived and studied with a bard in Leinster, and later defended the cause of the Druids when their schools and teachings were attacked.[7]

 

Vivien and Merlin

As well, in the fifth century AD, Fergus Mor, a direct descendant of Eochaid and Tamar, had migrated into Scotland from Ireland and established Dalriada in present Argyle. The Stone of Destiny and possibly other Jerusalem Temple artifacts were also relocated, where they remained under the care of the Celtic Christians at Iona established by Saint Columba. The Stone of Destiny was then moved to Scone in Scotland due to the Norse invasions of Iona.

Fergus’ grandson was Aidan Mac Gabhran of Argyll, King of the Scots, who lived from 574 to 608, referred to by Geoffrey of Monmouth as the Uthir, meaning “terrible”, crowned King of Scots Dalriada and Pendragon of the Celtic Isle, by his third cousin St. Columba of Iona in 574 AD.[8] Uther Pendragon’s mother, Lluan of Brecknock, was supposedly a direct descendent of Joseph of Arimathea.[9] Uther Pendagran was the father of King Arthur. His mother was Ygerna del Acqs, the High Queen of the Celtic kingdoms.[10] Merlin was also an elder cousin to King Aedan. Merlin was a Celtic Druid and Vivien del Acqs, the grandmother of Arthur was the Queen of Avalon and High Priestess of the Ancient Celtic Religion.

Constantine

Red Dragon of
the Pendragon family

King Arthur was also related to the Constantine the Great, the Emperor who converted the Roman Empire to Christianity in 333 AD. King Arthur’s mother, Igraine, was descended from Dionotus II King of Britain, the great-grandson of Constantine. His wife Elen Lwyddog verch Eudaf, whose mother was descended from the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, who belonged to the Herodian line.[11] Caesar’s grandson, Gaius Calpernius Piso, married Mariamne, the sister of Herod Agrippa. Their granddaughter, Pompeia, was the wife of Emperor Trajan, who was the grandfather of Marcus Aurelius. It was use of the dragon standard, or Draco, which according to Arrian, by Trajan and Marcus Aurelius, was of Scythian origin, that came to be adopted by the Pendragon family.[12]

Emperor Marcus Aurelius

As Emperor, Constantine was not only descended from Caesar, and Alexander the Great, but, according to British chroniclers of the Middle Ages, would also have been descended from Joseph of Arimathea, through his mother, Saint Helena, the finder of the “true cross”. Geoffrey of Monmouth made Saint Helena the daughter of Coel of Gloucester, and Strada “the Fair” of Combria. Her grandmother, therefore, would have been Gladys of Britain, who was descended from King Coel of Britain, whose mother was descended from Anna, the daughter of Joseph of Arimathea, and Beli Mawr, and also from Tamar Tephi, through the kings of Ireland.[13] King Coel’s father, Meric of the Britons Coel was the grandson of Emperor Claudius.[14]

Constantine’s father was descended from Septimus Severus, who in 172 AD seems to have been appointed to the Roman Senate by Marcus Aurelius, before eventually becoming Emperor. Septimus married Julia Domna, the daughter of Julius Bassianus, who was the great-great-grandson of Gaius Julius Alexio, the Syrian priest-king Emesa, the son of Soaemus and Drusilla of Mauritania, the great-granddaughter of Marc Antony and Cleopatra.[15] Drusilla had also been married to Felix Antonius.[16] Gaius Julius Alexio married Claudia, daughter of Arrius Calpurnius Piso, King of Syria, and Servilla, an illegitimate daughter of Roman Emperor Claudius, from whom the subsequent priests of Emesa were descended.[17]

Emperor Elagabalus

Included among these was the noted Neoplatonic philosopher, Iamblichus, who died in 325 BC. Iamblichus was the author of the most extensive text pertaining to the Mysteries of Mithras that remains in existence, titled On the Cave of the Nymphs, in which he describes the symbolism of a grotto mentioned in Homer, in relation to the cave rituals of Mithraism. Iamblichus, a Syrian philosopher, who lived from 250 to 330 AD, sought to revive paganism by a return to its roots among the Babylonians and Egyptians, the leading proponents of classical thought, like Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, and finally, in the mysteries. It was he, along with his teacher Porphyry, who wrote biographies of Pythagoras, recounting his sojourn among the Magi of Babylon.

Iamblichus

Septimus Severus was the father of Caracalla, who succeeded him. But, in 217 AD, emperor Caracalla, was killed and Macrinus ascended to the imperial throne. His cousin, Julia Soaemias Bassiana, the daughter of Julia Domna’s sister, Julia Maesa, would not allow the usurper to stand unopposed. Together with her mother, Julia, she plotted to substitute Macrinus with her son, Marcus Aurelius Antonius, who appropriated the name Elagabalus, the name of the dying-god worshipped by the priest-kings of Emesa. In 218 AD, Macrinus was killed and Elagabalus became emperor.

Elagabalus replaced Jupiter, head of the Roman mythology, with a new god, Sol invictus, which in Latin means “the Sun, God Unconquered”. The cult of Sol Invictus was harmonized with the cult of Mithras, with which it was so similar that the two are often confused. Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome’s government to participate in religious rites celebrating Sol invictus which he personally led. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry.

With the emperor’s death in 222 AD, his religion ceased, though succeeding emperors continued to be portrayed on coinage with the radiant sun-crown, for close to a century. The emperor Aurelian introduced an official religion of Sol Invictus in 270 AD, making the sun-god the premier divinity of the empire, and wearing his rayed crown himself. The worship of Sol Invictus was continued by Constantine, who some think never converted to Christianity. When he made Christianty the official religion of the Empire, he succeeded in fulfilling the Herodian plot of subverting the true Christian message, by instituting Paul’s version, known as Catholicism, which assimilated Jesus to the Gnostic figure of the dying-god.

The Saxons

The Britons had supported their allies in Gaul during the Gallic Wars against the Roman Republic, prompting Julius Caesar to invade the island in 55 BC. The whole southern portion of the island became a prosperous region of the Roman Empire. It was finally abandoned by the Romans, early in the fifth century AD, when the weakening Empire pulled back its legions to defend borders on the Continent. Unaided by the Roman army, Roman Britannia could not long resist the tribes from the area of modern Germany, called the “Anglo-Saxons”, who arrived in the fifth century and sixth centuries AD.

The Saxons were again descended from the Scythian tribes, who first appeared in Europe in the seventh century BC, when they crossed the Araxes River and passed out of Asia. The Araxes is the ancient name of the Aras River in Armenia, the area where the Israelites were last known, before settling east of the Ukraine, at the basin of the Don River near the Crimea, where they were known as Scythians. Strabo asserts that the most ancient Greek historians knew the Sacaea as a people who lived beyond the Caspian Sea. Ptolemy finds the Saxons in a race of Scythians, called Sakai, who came from Media. Pliny said: “The Sakai were among the most dis-tinguished people of Scythia, who settled in Armenia, and were called Sacae-Sani.” Albinus, the learned tutor of Charlemagne, maintained that: “The Saxons were descended from the ancient Sacae of Asia.”[18]

A tradition that the Saxons are descended from the Sacae has been recorded by both the Camden and John Milton, the former in his Britannia, and the latter in his History of England. Camden writes:

The origin and etymology of the Saxons, like those of other nations, have been involved in fable ... Each of these writers adopts the opinion most agreeable to them; I mean not to controvert any of them, but that of the most learned Germans seems most probable and worthy to be embraced, which makes the Saxons descended from the Sacae, the most considerable people of Asia, and to be so called quasi Sacasones, q.d. Sons of the Sacae, and to have gradually overspread Europe from Scythia or Sarmatia Asiatica, with the Getae, Suevi, Daci and others.[19]

The Saxons, like the Vikings, claimed descent from a Hunnish leader named Uldin, later Odin, or Wotan. According to the Yngling Saga, written from historical sources available to the Icelander Snorri Sturluson, Odin came from the land of Asgaard, which was on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea, at the basin of the Don River:

On the south side of the mountains which lie outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod, which is properly called by the name of Tanais [Don River], but was formerly called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black Sea. The country of the people on the Vanaquisl was called Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separate the three parts of the world, of which the easternmost part is called Asia, and the westernmost Europe...

The country east of the Tanaquisl in Asia was called Asaland, or Asaheim, and the chief city in that land was called Asgaard. In that city was a chief called Odin, and it was a great place for sacrifice.[20]

Asgard is likely the same as Arsareth, to which the Lost Tribes, following the captivity, were to have been relocated. The apocryphal book of 2 Esdras records:

These are the Ten Tribes which were carried away captives out of their own land in the time of Oseas, the king, whom Salmanaser, the king of the Assyrians, took captive and crossed them beyond the river; so were they brought into another land, but they took this council to themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen and go forth onto a further country, where never man dwelt, that they might keep the statutes, which they never kept in their own land. And they entered in at the narrow passages of the river Euphrates, for the most High then showed them signs and stayed the springs of the flood till they were passed over; for through the country there was great journey, even of a year and a half, and the same region is called Arsareth.

Odin

The Prose Eddas and the Heimskringla, also from Snorri Sturluson, recount that the ancestors of the Norse kings resided east of the river Don, and were led by Odin, or Uldin, who had vast holdings south of the Ural Mountains. He and his people were known as Ases, or Asir, and after many battles, he left two brothers in charge of his domains, along a ridge of the Caucasus Mountains, called Asgaard, likely Chasgar, and with his people headed north.[21] Most, however, were men, as apparently they took “women of the land” in Scandinavia as wives. This would have been approximately 450 AD, when Odin’s descendants were said to have founded the nations of the Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, and in Germany, the Saxon tribes.

Thor Heyerdahl had suggested the people noted by Snorri as the Ases, or Alans, or the Asir, may have been the Azerirs of Azerbaijan.[22] In turn, the Azeris are descended from the Medes, and genetic researcher David Faux has discovered that of all the groups anywhere, only the genetic samples from the Azeri contained haplotypes that were very similar to participants tested in the Shetlands, settled by “Vikings”.[23]

Odin, though a real man, was eventually worshipped as a god by his ancestors. One-eyed, with a long white beard, he was a sorcerer who practiced divination from a severed head, and could change shape at will. Ancient scholars identified him with Mercury, known to the Greeks as Hermes, another species of dying-god that can be identified with Lucifer. Odin was married to Freya, the great-granddaughter of King Coel, whose grandfather, Aviragus, King of the Britons, married Genuissa, the daughter of Emperor Claudius, and sister of Servilla, who had married Gaius Julius Alexio, Priest-King of Emesa.[24] Like Astarte, Freya came to be worshipped as a goddess of fertility, love and war. It is she who was thought to have taught her people witchcraft, and acted as a priestess of human sacrifices.

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The Ashkenazi

Armenia

Psalter world map, circa 1260
Gog and Magog are placed
in the region of Russia or Mongolia

While the branches stemming from the families that produced Mithraism, namely the House of Commagene, of Herod, Emesa, and the Claudio-Julian line, would produce the leading families of Europe, through the intermarriage of the Saxons and the descendants of Charlemagne, these bloodlines would receive another important infusion during the Crusades. It was the intermarriage, through that pivotal period, of this Mithraic bloodline with the various aristocratic houses of Armenia, and related branches of Eastern European aristocracies, of Poland, Bulgaria and Hungary, descended from the enigmatic Khazars of southern Russia, that would ignite the activities of occult organizations, all notoriously associated with the Holy Grail, and whose most feared symbol was the skull and crossbones.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, written in the ninth century AD, begins by saying that the Britons, like the Saxons, came from Armenia and the Picts of Scotland from the south of Scythia. The idea that the Scots came from Scythia is found in most legendary accounts and also in unedited versions of the Venerable Bede.[1] It was their counterparts, who chose to remain behind in the Don River Basin, who converted to Judaism in the eighth century AD, and who were known as Khazars. Therefore, these various peoples all descend from the Scythian tribes, who first appeared in Europe in the seventh century BC, when they crossed the Araxes River, the ancient name of the Aras River in Armenia, the area where the Israelites were last known before departing for Europe.

In the article in the November 2001 issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics, Ariella Oppenheim, of the Hebrew University of Israel, wrote that her new study revealed that Jews have a closer genetic relationship to populations in the northern Mediterranean, including Kurds, Anatolian Turks, and Armenians, than to populations in the southern Mediterranean, like Arabs and Bedouins.

The Armenians traditionally identify themselves as descendants of Ashkenaz, the son of Magog. However, both Armenian and Georgian historians also record that after the destruction of the first Temple, Nebuchadnezzar transported numbers of Jewish captives, not only to Babylon, but also to Armenia and the Caucasus.

There is little likelihood of the these “Lost Tribes” retaining their identity. Rather, by the end of the fourth century BC, some Armenian cities had large Jewish populations.[2] The medieval Armenian historian Moses of Khorene, wrote that King Tigran II the Great, king of Armenia in the first century BC, settled thousands of Jews from Syria and Mesopotamia in Armenian cities. It appears that some of these earliest Jewish settlers later converted to Christianity. Josephus wrote that Judean Jews were taken by the Armenian king Artavazd II, and resettled in Armenia, again during the first century B.C.E., but some years after Tigranes’ resettlement.[3]

Researcher Kevin Alan Brook suggests that one possible avenue for the transmission of Armenians genes to Ashkenazi Jewry might be the aristocracy of the ancient kingdom of Adiabene, who converted to Judaism in the first century AD. According to Josephus, Monobazus:

...the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister, Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he lad his hand upon his wife’s belly, and fell asleep, and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him to take his hand off his wife’s belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, which by God’s providence, would be safely born, and have a happy end.[4]

The child’s name was Izates, and when he was older, a Jewish merchant named Ananias acquainted him with the religion of Judaism, with which he became deeply interested. His mother, Queen Helena, had been previously won over to Judaism without his knowing it. Upon ascending the throne, on the death of his father, Izates discovered the conversion of his mother, and he himself intended to convert to Judaism, and even to accept circumcision. He was, however, dissuaded from it by both his teacher Ananias, and by his mother, but was ultimately persuaded thereto by another Jew, Eleazar.

Izates was succeeded by his brother, Monobazes II, who, according to Jewish tradition, as recorded in the Jewish Encyclopedia, was the son of Agrippa II and Helena.[5] Monobazes II himself had a son, named Izates II, who married Cleopatra, the granddaughter of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and sister to Ptolemy King of Mauritania, who had been married to Drusilla, before she divorced him for Felix Antonius.[6] Their granddaughter, Awde of Osrhoene, married Mithridates Arshakuni, the son of Vologaeses I of Parthia, the great-grandson Antiochus I of Commagene, and from him were descended the kings of Armenia and Parthian and Sassanid Empires of Persia.[7] The grandson of Awde and Mithridates Arshakuni, Vologaeses V “Great King” of Parthia, married the daughter of Pharamenses III, who was a descendant of Alexander the Great, as well as Cleopatra and Mark Antony. Their son was Chosroes I “the Great” Arshakuni, King of Armenia, who ruled from 197 to 238 AD, the father of Tiridates II of Armenia.

Manichaeism

Tiridates II of Armenia married Soshandukht, from the Empire of the Kushans, in northwestern India, which was a stronghold of the Manichaeism, a religion that would feature prominently in the Eastern bloodlines, and which would, through their intermarriage with the West, go on to influence the Holy Grail. Manichaeism was founded by an individual named Mani, born near Baghdad in 214 AD, to a family related to the Persian royal house.

According to the Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadim, Mani was brought up within the sect of the Elkasites, a Christian baptismal sect with Gnostic tendencies, resembling that of the Essenes, known as the Mughtasilah, that is, “those who wash”, or “baptize”, “themselves”. The Mughtasilah may have been related to the Mandaeans. Mandaeans do not recognize Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, but acknowledge instead John the Baptist, whom they revere as one of their greatest teachers. Scholars believe they originated in a Jewish-Gnostic group from Jordan, who emigrated to Babylonia in the first or second century AD, and among those still in Iraq, are Gnostic books preserved dating from seventh or eighth century. The Mughtasilah, like the Mandaeans, wore white and performed baptisms. They dwelled in east Judea and northern Mesopotamia, from where the Mandaeans migrated to southern Mesopotamia, according to their legends.

However, Mani protested against his upbringing, and around 240 AD, he began to propagate his own teachings, and became renowned for his spiritual healing and exorcisms. His followers proclaimed him “the new Jesus” and even credited him with a virgin birth. Mani regarded Zoroaster, Buddha, and Jesus as his forerunners and declared that he, like them, had received essentially the same enlightenment from the same source. His teachings were a fusion of Gnosticism, with aspects of Zoroastrian and Mithraic traditions, purporting that the creator god was evil.

According to the Kephalaia, Mani spent many years in attendance of Shapur I, the Emperor of the Sassanid Empire, and many years preaching in Persia, Parthia and Adiabene.[8] Shapur I was the second ruler of the Sassanian Empire of Persian, established by his father, Ardashir, which replaced the Parthians. Ardashir, the father of Shapur, was a descendant Antiochus I of Commagene. He married Ziyanak Arshakuni, a descendant of Monobazes of Adiabene, through her father, Artabanus IV Arshakuni, King of Media, the brother of Chosroes I “the Great” of Armenia. Under the leadership of Ardashir I, they created an empire that was constantly changing in size as it reacted to Rome, to Byzantium to the west, and to the Kushans of Afghanistan to the east.

Shapur I of Persia

At the time of Shapur I, in the last half of the third century AD, the empire stretched from Georgia in the north, to Oman in Arabia in the south, to the Indus river in the east, and to the upper Tigris and Euphrates river valleys in the west. Shapur I founded the city of Gondeshapur, in which became the center of ancient sciences. A school was set up, the Academy of Gondeshapur, on the model of that at Alexandria, in which medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and logic were taught, mostly from Greek texts translated into Syriac, but also elements of Indian and Persian sciences were included.

According to Alexander of Lycopolis, who wrote in the fourth century, Mani, as a member of court of Shapur I, and accompanied him on his campaigns.[9] Mani made excursions to the Kushan Empire, in what is today Pakistan and northwestern India, when Shapur I extended his authority eastwards into the region, where the previously autonomous Kushans were obliged to accept his suzerainty. The Kushan Empire, which stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan, and down into the Ganges river valley, became a stronghold of Mani’s religion, and a base for missionary expeditions into Central Asia.

Manichaeism spread with rapidly throughout both the east and west. By 354 AD, Hilary of Poitiers wrote that the Manichaean faith had a significant following in southern France. Its most famous adherent was St. Augustine, who was a Manichean before his conversion to Christianity. The Manichaean faith was also widely persecuted. The faith maintained a sporadic and intermittent existence in west Mesopotamia, Africa, Spain, France, North Italy, the Balkans for a thousand years, and flourished for a time in the land of its birth Persia. In 1000 AD, the Arab historian Al-Biruni wrote: “The majority of the Eastern Turks, the inhabitants of China and Tibet, and a number in India belong to the religion of Mani”.[10]

When Shapur I died, sometime between 270 and 273 AD, and was succeeded by his son Hormizd, Mani received from him the same permission to teach that Shapur had granted him. But after only a year in power, Hormizd died, and he was in turn succeeded by another of Shapur’s sons, Bahram. Soon after his accession, Bahram caused Mani to be crucified, had the corpse flayed, the skin stuffed, and hung up at the city gate.[11]

The Paulicians

Manicheanism was the source of an important Gnostic heresy in Armenia, called Paulicianism, whose eventual spread into Europe signaled the birth of the Illuminati conspiracy in that part of the world. This cult penetrated first into the Balkans, to influence the aristocratic families of Eastern Europe. These families derived their origin from the enigmatic Khazars, that Turkic peoples of southern Russia, descendants of the Scythians, who converted to Judaism in the eighth century AD. They were thus an important link in the transference of the inheritance of the so-called Lost Tribes, and the Armenian influence, to Western Europe.

During the important era of the Crusades, it was their intermarriage with their counterparts among the Saxons, and another important faction of the Mithraic bloodline, whose primary representative was Charlemagne, that they transmitted Paulician influence to southern France. As Catharism, this creed would become the secret Gnostic doctrine of that family, identified collectively by the symbolism of the Holy Grail, or known as the Order of the Rose, and being the hidden power behind the vairous pernicious organizations, beginning with the Knights Templar, leading to the Rosicrucians, Freemasons, and finally the Illuminati.

The earliest accounts of the introduction of Christianity into Armenia date from the first century A.D. when it was first preached by two Apostles of Jesus, St. Bartholomew and St. Thaddeus.[12] The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes incorrectly called the Armenian Orthodox Church, has been around since the days of the apostles and therefore makes the claim of being one of the oldest denominations in Christianity. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its State religion, in 301 AD, when St. Gregory the Illuminator converted Tiridates III “the Great”, King of Armenia, the grandson of Tiridates II, and members of his court.

According to a Manichean Sogdian text, a younger contemporary of Mani, brought Manichean beliefs to Armenia.[13] There, where there was already a significant Christian community, in the second half of the 3rd century AD, Manichaeism influenced the formation of the sect of the Paulicians. The sect emerged under the dynasty of the Mamikonians, a noble family which dominated Armenia, between the fourth and eighth centuruies, whose heralic symbol was the double-headed eagle.

The dynasty was incepted when Narses Souren I “the Great” Pahlav, a direct descendant of Tiridates II, married Sandoukht, the daughter of Vardan I.[14] According to Moses of Khorene, an Armenian historian of the fifth century AD, the tale of the Mamikonians’ origin begins with a rebellion of two Chinese brothers, who were princes, against the Chinese emperor in the early part of the third century AD. The brothers, Mamik and Konak, fought against the Chinese emperor but lost. They fled to the land of the Kushans, then under the influence of Manichaeism, and sought the refuge of the Persian king, which would have been Shapur. The Chinese emperor demanded the rebels be returned to China, or Persia would face war with the Chinese. The Persian king, not wanting to kill the brothers, but also wanting to avoid conflict with the Chinese emperor, instead sent them west to Armenia, resulting in peace again between China and Persia.[15]

The name “Paulicians” was derived from their respect for the Paul of Tarsus, whose Letters they honoured, in addition to the Gospel of Luke, though otherwise rejecting the Old Testament and the Letters of St. Peter. In the ninth century AD, Photius related that it was a certain Manichee woman, named Kallinike, who sent her two sons Paul and John to Armenia, to propagate this heresy.[16]

The founder of the sect was Constantine-Silvanus, who hailed from Mananalis, a dualistic community near Samosata, the capitol of Cilicia. The enemies of the Paulicians accused them constantly of gross immorality, even at their prayer-meetings. They believed in a distinction between the God who made and governs the material world, and the “God of heaven” who created souls, who alone should be worshipped, in other words, Lucifer. Therefore, like all Gnostic sect before them, they thought all matter to be corrupt. For the Paulicians, Christ was an angel sent into the world by their “God”. Jesus’ real mother was not the Virgin Mary, but the heavenly Jerusalem. This idea mirrors one found in the Kabbalah, where the “Shekhina”, or “beloved” in the Song of Solomon, is equated with the “congregation of Israel”. Jesus’ work, they claimed, consisted only in his teaching that to believe in him saves men from judgment.

The Khazars

Adherents of the Paulician sect fled, with the Armenian Paul at their head, to Episparis, in the Armenian district Phanaroea, the best part of Pontus, according to Strabo.[17] Pontus was a name applied, in ancient times, to extensive region in the northeast of Asia Minor, now Turkey, the greater part of which lay within the immense region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Black Sea.

But some of the Paulicians, it would seem, found their way to the land of the Khazars, who were then warring against the Arabs in the same region. The Khazars were sometimes credited with Armenian origin. This is stated by the seventh-century Armenian bishop and historian Sebeos, and the fourteenth century Arab geographer Dimashqi.[18] The Cambridge Document, discovered by Solomon Schechter in the late nineteenth century, and also known as the Schechter Letter, the Schechter Text, and the Letter of an Anonymous Khazar Jew, discusses how Jewish men fled either through or from Armenia into the Khazar kingdom in ancient times, escaping from “the yoke of the idol-worshippers”.

Like the Armenians, the Khazars were identified with Gog and Magog. They were regarded as descendants of Japheth, Noah’s third son, and connected with the Torgom-Togarmah and Ashkenaz of the Old Testament.[19] The “Ashkuza” of the Akkadians have also been linked to a branch of the Turks, also related to the Huns, called Oghuz, to which the Khazars belonged.[20] The Khazars occupied the exact area of the Scythians, and the word “Ashkenaz” is thought to have originally applied to the Scythians (Ishkuz), who were called Ashkuza in Assyrian inscriptions. Lake Ascanius and the region Ascania in Anatolia derive their names from this group.[21]

Therefore, it has been claimed that the Khazars derived from both the Edomites and the so-called “Lost Tribes”. Like their Edomite ancestors, the Khazars were also red-headed, and came to be known as “Red Jews”. According to Raphael and Jennifer Patai, in The Myth of the Jewish Race:

...one should remember that the Khazars were described by several contemporary authors as having a pale complexion, blue eyes, and reddish hair. Red, as distinguished from blond, hair is found in a certain percentage of East European Jews, and this, as well as the more generalized light coloring, could be a heritage of the medieval Khazar infusion.[22]

In particular, the Khazars were said to descend from the Tribe of Simeon, who had been assimilated into the Edomites. According to Eldad ha-Dani, a Jewish traveller of the ninth century, the Khazars were remnants of Simeon and Manasseh. The tribe of Zebulon, on the other hand, he explained, occupies the land extending from the province of Armenia to the River Euphrates. Likewise, one version of the Letter of King Joseph, also known as the Khazar Correspondence, reported that the Khazars had a tradition that they were descended from the Tribe of Simeon. The Cochin Scroll also maintains that the Khazars were descended from Simeon and Menasseh.

According to the Schechter Letter, after the Jews from Armenia and Persia had eventually assimilated almost totally with the nomadic Khazars, a strong war-leader arose, named Bulan, who succeeded in having himself named ruler of the Khazars. Sabriel, who happened to be remotely descended from the early Jewish settlers, and his wife Serakh, convinced him to adopt Judaism, in which his people followed him.[23]

Arthur Koestler, in The Thirteenth Tribe, popularized the theory that the majority of European Ashkenazi Jews are in fact not descended from the ancient inhabitants of Israel, but from Khazarian converts to Judaism. The term “Ashkenaz” describes a relatively compact area of Jewish settlement in northwestern Europe, including northeastern France and northern Germany, where Jewish settlement is documented dating back to at least the sixth century AD. The traditional explanation of East European Jewish origins was that most Ashkenazi Jews reached Poland and Russia from Germany, and Germany from France.

Modern genetic studies, however, have proven Koestler’s theory incorrect. Studies of mitochondrial DNA have demonstrated that Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Europe were composed mostly through intermarriage of Jewish men with women of European descent. The reason is that Radhanites, Persian Jewish merchants, had migrated to Poland or Germany or France, since the fifth century AD, where they mostly married into those communities for hundreds of years. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Science report, appears to bear out that Ashkenazi Jews must have arrived in Eastern Europe, not from the west and southwest, but from the south and east, that is, via northern Italy and the Balkans, Asia Minor and the Greek Byzantine empire, the Volga kingdom of the Khazars, or a combination of all three.[24]

The non-Israelite haplogroups include Q, which is typically Central Asian, and R1a1, which is typically Eastern European. Q is considered by researcher Doron Behar to constitute a minor founding lineage among Jewish populations. Approximately five to ten percent of Ashkenazi Jews today are in this haplogroup, and it originated in Central Asia. It is an extremely rare haplogroup in both Europe and the Middle East, found only Scandinavia, and the few countries that Khazars were known to have migrated to, like Poland, Hungary and Lithuania.[25]

However, it has also been found that about half of Ashkenazi Levites possess Eastern European non-Israelite haplotypes belonging to the R1a1 haplogroup, which is typically Eastern European. The Levites are particularly interesting because, among them, it is the Cohens, or Kohamin, for whom the office of priest has traditionally been reserved. Levitical status is generally determined by oral tradition, passed from father to son, with children being Levites if their father and grandfather was. Until the eighteenth century in Europe, many Cohens could accurately trace their lineage back to a verifiable Kohamin such as Ezra. Today, families may verify their priestly lineage via the tombstones of deceased ancestors, as the universal symbol of the hands arranged for the Priestly Blessing. This is the hand gesture porpularized as Spock’s Vulcan salute in Stark Trek. Some scholars maintain, however, that because of the destruction of Jerusalem’s temple and the unavailability of lineage records, there is now no way to establish who is a Levite reliably.

Levites in Orthodox Judaism continue to have additional rights and obligations compared to lay people, although these responsibilities have diminished with the destruction of the Temple. Orthodox Judaism maintains a belief in and hope for a restoration of a Third Temple in Jerusalem, and Kohanim are regarded as retaining their original sanctity, and some elements of their original roles and responsibilities, and having a status of waiting in readiness for future service in a restored Temple. Some Orthodox Jews have founded schools to train priests and Levites in their respective roles.

The R1a1 haplogroup is almost never found among Sephardic Levites, and may have been introduced into the Ashkenazi Levite lines by Slavs, or Khazars who converted to Judaism.[26]

R1a1 is all over Armenia, Georgia, and Eastern Europe in general, including the Sorbs, the Poles, and many people of central Europe. It’s also found in Finland, and many R1a1 people went west to Scotland and Scandinavia. Interestingly, the R1a1 was introduced only 900-1000 years ago into only the Ashkenazi Levite male population.

The irony, of course, is the R1a1 Kurgans who are the founders of this haplogroup are considered the epitome of Indo-Europeanism. The homeland of the Indo-Europeans is the steppes north of the Black Sea, right where the Khazarian Empire was located. But the problem is that not only were Khazars most likely significantly R1a in their ancestry, but most Eastern Europeans are also R1a.[27]

The finding raises the question of how the signature became so widespread among the Levites, an ancient caste of hereditary Jewish priests. The genetic signature occurs on the male or Y chromosome and comes from a few men, or perhaps a single ancestor, who lived about 1,000 years ago, just as the Ashkenazim were beginning to be established in Europe. It has been proposed that the ancestor who introduced it into the Ashkenazi Levites could perhaps have been from the Khazars.

Through the infiltration of Armenian Jews, the double-headed eagle of the Mamikonians, became their heraldic symbol the Khazars. The striking or rising eagle, Togrul or Togarmah, meaning “the powerful eagle”, represents for Khazars the messenger and mediator of Tängri, meaning “The Lord-God-The sun”. It also represents the sacred royal imperial power, in Hebrew Malchut Ha-Shmayim, since more than three thousand years, and is the heraldic symbol of the two merged royal clans, in Hebrew Ha-Shechina, and Turkic Ashina. Thus it is the very emblem of any Khagan, meaning “King of Kings, Emperor”, of Khazars.[28]

The Magyars

At its height, the Khazarian empire covered an area of the Ukraine, southern Russia to the Caucasus, and the western portions of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the Aral Sea. The town of Kiev, meaning “the site at the shore”, at the Dnepr river, had been founded by the Khazars around the beginning of the eighth century AD, as a trading and administrative center in the western part of the Khazarian empire. However, a mounted force Viking force, known as the Kievan Rus, lead by prince Svyatoslav, in a treacherous collaboration with Byzantium, succeeded in penetrating the Khazarian empire, and destroying their capital Itil in 967 AD. Svyatoslav was the great-grandson of Halfdan Frodason King of Denmark, in turn descended from Odin, and whose mother was Hilda of the Vandals. Hilda’s father was Hilderic of the Vandals, whose mother was Eudoxia of Rome, the great-great-granddaughter of Constantine.[29]

The resulting dispersal of the Khazars penetrated into the nations of Poland, Bulgaria, and the Magyars of Hungary, who were vassals of the Khazars. At the end of the ninth century AD, the Khanagate of the Khazars had appointed a man named Arpad, to be the leader of the kingdom of Hungary, formed by seven Magyar and three Khazar tribes under his leadership.[30] According to an early Greek document, Arpad and the Magyar clan was Manichean in religion.130 And, as recounted in the Gesta Hungarorum, Latin for “The Deeds of the Hungarians”, a record of early Hungarian history, written by the unknown author around 1200 AD, the Magyars were Scythians, originally descended from Magog:

Scythia, which is called Hungary upon the [river] Don, is quite a vast land. Its eastern border stretches from the northern region to the Black Sea. Behind it runs the Don river with its enormous marshlands, where there are enough martens not just to lavishly clothe the noblemen and the lower ranking people, but also the herdsmen, swineherdsmen, and shepherds. The land is rich in gold and silver, and its rivers offer pearls and semi-precious stones. Scythia’s eastern neighbours were the nations of Gog and Magog, who were cut off from the world by Alexander the Great. The dimensions of the Scythian land are extremely large. The people inhabiting it are still customarily called Don-Hungarians; they have never been under the yoke of any ruler. The Scythians are, namely, an ancient nation which has power over the east. Scythia’s first king was Magog, son of Japheth, and the nation obtained its name “Magyar” from him.[31]

The Gesta goes on to explain that, from Magog’s descendants there came Attila the Hun, in 451 AD, from Scythia to Pannonia, with an enormous army, driving out the Romans and conquering the land. In the year 819 AD, it continues, Ogyek, the commander of Scythia and also descendant of Magog, decided to marry a woman named Emesh. During her pregnancy, Emesh saw a supernatural vision, in the shape of a turul, which landed on her body and made her pregnant. The Turul, like the Turkic Toghrul of the Khazars, is a giant mythical eagle, a messenger of god in Hungarian mythology, who sits on top of the tree of life, along with the other spirits of unborn children in the form birds. Turul is often replaced by the sun in illustrations of the tree of life.[32] Since a dream in Hungarian is called álom, the boy was named Almos, the father of Arpad.

Arpad and his clan began a push westward, eventually settling in what is today Hungary, where a unified Magyar state was established by Arpad’s great-grandson Geza, in 971. Although still a pagan, when he became ruler, an alliance was concluded between the Holy Roman Empire and Byzantium in 972, forced Geza to convert to Christianity, to secure a lasting peace for Hungary. Although Geza was baptized in 985, it is doubtful his conversion was sincere, for according to the Bishop of Merseburg, he continued to worship pagan gods.

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