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cnut

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About cnut

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  1. So now its half a pear shaped? Neil was half right....lmao, This is ridiculous! At least boats don't sail upside down...heh
  2. Good morning, I was curious what your thoughts are about the rail gun? Claims are it can shoot 125 miles at mach 7,and its "lobbed" in the air and follows a parabolic arc,caused by "gravity". That seems pretty darn fast to lob a projectile, from a ship,with a hidden curvature of 1.97 miles. I have read some rebuttals, but was wondering what the groups responses would be. Once again,thanks for your time and considerations! apologies if this is redundant! peace, cnut
  3. I would love nothing more than hitlery and obongo be prosecuted in the same manner you or I would have been,unfortunately, its too little and too late, they don't play by the same rules. The average person now thinks fast and furious is a series of movies. Hang em high I say!
  4. I wish barry and mike would go away, never to be heard from again, they disgust me in every way!
  5. Hello, Thanks for your response. So 1600 meters is 5249 feet, the target hidden height at 120 miles away would be 653 feet. Since 250 meters is 820 feet, this means that yes, you do have a line of sight over the curvature. https://dizzib.github.io/earth/curve-calc/?d0=120&h0=5249&unit=imperial Thank you for helping me understand. peace, cnut
  6. Hello all, I really appreciate all the responses! This has proven to be interesting research topic. I have been reading a lot of information as a result of everyone's comments, thanks! I found this article that ducting was not observed at "The World’s Longest All-IP Microwave Link" located in Honduras, which of course leads to more questions? c&p Understanding the behavior of the atmospheric conditions determines the type of design needed to accommodate how the link will perform over time in any region, regardless of the temporal, seasonal and climatic variations along the path. In Central America, with its warm days and nights, standard propagation is prevalent, because the troposphere in this region is “assumed” to be thermodynamically unstable and in a state of constant turbulent mixing—ducting (a key propagation impairment over long paths) has not been observed. Under these conditions and based on Aviat Networks’ experience, long (exceeding 80 km), over-water, semi-horizontal and windy paths exhibit excellent performance, even with relatively low ground elevations above mean sea level at both sites. source:http://blog.aviatnetworks.com/from-the-field/the-worlds-longest-all-ip-microwave-link/ Thanks for your time! peace, cnut
  7. cnut

    new here

    Thank you all! cinn its short for conspiracy nut but i see what you mean lol
  8. wow, i'm learning some really interesting things searching,thanks for getting me started! I apologize if my posts are offensive to some of you guys,that was sincerely not my intentions. I'm not interested in any arguments, just friendly discussions! I'm just trying to research conspiracy's, and this is the friendliest sight imo, and the first one i ever signed up to. Thanks all!! Tropospheric ducting over water, particularly between California and Hawaii, Brazil and Africa, Australia and New Zealand, Australia and Indonesia, Strait of Florida, and Bahrain and Pakistan, has produced VHF/UHF reception ranging from 1000 to 3,000 miles (1,600 – 4,800 km). A US listening post was built in Ethiopia to exploit a common ducting of signals from southern Russia.
  9. I am reading about the ducting, I agree it explains a lot! thanks c&p Ducting Under normal atmospheric conditions, the warmest air is found near the surface of the Earth. The air gradually becomes cooler as altitude increases. At times, however, an unusual situation develops in which layers of warm air are formed above layers of cool air. This condition is known as temperature inversion. These temperature inversions cause channels, or ducts, of cool air to be sandwiched between the surface of the Earth and a layer of warm air, or between two layers of warm air. inversion layers dead zone Figure 3: Ducting If a transmitting antenna extends into such a duct of cool air, or if the radio wave enters the duct at a very low angle of incidence, vhf and uhf transmissions may be propagated far beyond normal line-of-sight distances. When ducts are present as a result of temperature inversions, good reception of vhf and uhf television signals from a station located hundreds of miles away is not unusual. These long distances are possible because of the different densities and refractive qualities of warm and cool air. The sudden change in density when a radio wave enters the warm air above a duct causes the wave to be refracted back toward Earth. When the wave strikes the Earth or a warm layer below the duct, it is again reflected or refracted upward and proceeds on through the duct with a multiple-hop type of action. An example of the propagation of radio waves by ducting is shown in the figure. source{with great diagrams} http://www.radartutorial.eu/07.waves/wa17.en.html Thanks again for helping me make sense on these items! peace, cnut
  10. Thanks 2many secrets, I have a lot more reading,for sure! Unfortunately, Physics and Geometry were not my majors, business major psychology minor sprinkled with poly sci. If only we could go back...anyway i do appreciate you guys taking the time to respond. I'm trying to make some sense out of this. c&p Microwave radio relay is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as long- distance telephone calls, teleconferencing ,television programs, and computer data, between two locations on a line of sight radio path. In microwave radio relay, microwaves are transmitted between the two locations with directional antennas, forming a fixed radio connection between the two points. The requirement of a line of sight limits the distance between stations to 30 or 40 miles.Because the radio waves travel in narrow beams confined to a line-of-sight path from one 2. antenna to the other , they don't interfere with other microwave equipment, and nearby microwave links can use the same frequencies. Antennas used must be highly directional, these antennas are installed in elevated locations such as large radio towers in order to be able to transmit across long distances. Typical types of antenna used in radio relay link installations areparabolic antennas, dielectric lens, and horn-reflector antennas, which have a diameter of up to 4 meters. and c&p Introduction The radio refractive index is an important parameter in determining the quality of UHF, VHF, and SHF signals. In characterizing a radio channel, surface (ground level) and elevated refractivity data are often required; and in particular, the surface refractivity is very useful for pr ediction of some propagation effects. Local coverage and statistics of refractivity, such as refractivity gradient, provide the most useful indication of the likely occurrence of refractivity-related effects required for prediction methods [1]. This work presents the result of in-situ measurement of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure at five different height levels beginning from the ground to 200 m altitude at intervals of 50 m. 2. Radio Refractivity, refractivity gradient and k-factor. The refractivity, N is related to the refractive index, n of air as; [1, 2] () 65 2 1 10 77.6 3.73 10 p e Nn TT =−× = + × (1) where: p = atmospheric pressure (hPa), e = water vapour pressure (hPa) and T = absolute temperature (K). The water vapour pressure e is calculated from the relative humidity, and saturated water vapour, using the expression: 17.502 6.1121exp 240.97 100 t t eH ⎛⎞ ⎜⎟ + ⎝⎠ =× (2) where: H = relative humidity (%), t = temperature in degree Celsius ( o C) and e s = saturation vapour pressure (hPa). The effective earth radius factor k can be used to characterise refractive conditions as normal refraction or standard atmosphere, sub-refrac tion, super-refra ction and ducting respectively. Thus, k may be expressed in terms of refractivity gradient, dN/dh as [3, 4] () 157 / 1 1 dh dN k + ≈ (3) Near the earth’s surface, dN/dh is about -39N/km which gives an effective earth radius factor, k = 4/3. This is referred to as normal refraction or standard atmosphere. Here, radio signals travel on a straight line path along the earth’s surface and go out to space unobstructed. If 4 0 3 k >> (4a) Sub-refraction occurs, meaning that radio waves propagate abnormally away from the earth’s surface. When 4 3 k ∞> > (4b) In this case, super-refraction occurs and radio waves propagate abnormally towards the earth’s surface thus extending the radio horizon. Subsequently, if 0 k −∞ < < (4c) ducting occurs and the waves bend downwards with a curvature greater than that of the earth. Sorry for the long post, and thanks for your time. peace, cnut
  11. Thanks octopus prime, I will review the material, much appreciated! peace, cnut
  12. Lately we have been trying to figure out the claim that star-trails in the Southern Hemisphere rotate clockwise, while those in the North rotate counter-clockwise and provide this as proof positive of their spinning ball-Earth.They say stars rotate around Sigma Octantis, however, some claim this untrue. “Another thing is certain, that from within the equator the north pole star, and the constellations Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, and many others, can be seen from every meridian simultaneously; whereas in the south, from the equator, neither the so-called south pole star, nor the remarkable constellation of the Southern Cross, can be seen simultaneously from every meridian, showing that all the constellations of the south - pole star included - sweep over a great southern arc and across the meridian, from their rise in the evening to their setting in the morning. But if the earth is a globe, Sigma Octantis, a south pole star, and the Southern Cross, a southern circumpolar constellation, they would all be visible at the same time from every longitude on the same latitude, as is the case with the northern pole star and the northern circumpolar constellations. Such, however, is not the case.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (286) c&p 1) Sigma Octantis is claimed to be a Southern central pole star similar to Polaris, around which the Southern hemisphere stars all rotate around the opposite direction. Unlike Polaris, however, Sigma Octantis can NOT be seen simultaneously from every point along the same latitude, it is NOT central but allegedly 1 degree off-center, it is NOT motionless, and in fact cannot be seen at all using publicly available telescopes! There is legitimate speculation regarding whether Sigma Octantis even exists. Either way, the direction in which stars move overhead is based on perspective and the exact direction you’re facing, not which hemisphere you are in. 2) Some heliocentrists have tried to suggest that the Pole Star’s gradual declination overhead as an observer travels southwards is proof of a globular Earth. Far from it, the declination of the Pole Star or any other object is simply a result of the Law of Perspective on plane (flat) surfaces. The Law of Perspective dictates that the angle and height at which an object is seen diminishes the farther one recedes from the object, until at a certain point the line of sight and the seemingly uprising surface of the Earth converges to a vanishing point (i.e. the horizon line) beyond which the object is invisible. In the ball-Earth model the horizon is claimed to be the curvature of the Earth, whereas in reality, the horizon is known to be simply the vanishing line of perspective based on the strength of your eyes, instruments, weather and altitude. 3) There are several constellations which can be seen from far greater distances over the face of the Earth than should be possible if the world were a rotating, revolving, wobbling ball. For instance, Ursa Major, very close to Polaris, can be seen from 90 degrees North latitude (the North Pole) all the way down to 30 degrees South latitude. For this to be possible on a ball-Earth the Southern observers would have to be seeing through hundreds or thousands of miles of bulging Earth to the Northern sky. 4) The constellation Vulpecula can be seen from 90 degrees North latitude, all the way to 55 degrees South latitude. Taurus, Pisces and Leo can be seen from 90 degrees North all the way to 65 degrees South. An observer on a ball-Earth, regardless of any tilt or inclination, should not logically be able to see this far. 5) Aquarius and Libra can be seen from 65 degrees North to 90 degrees South! The constellation Virgo is visible from 80 degrees North down to 80 degrees South, and Orion can be seen from 85 degrees North all the way to 75 degrees South latitude! These are all only possible because the “hemispheres” are not spheres at all but concentric circles of latitude extending outwards from the central North Pole with the stars rotating over and around. Sorry if this has been discussed, Thanks for your input! peace, cnut
  13. cnut

    new here

    Thanks! Really honored to finally be a member!
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