Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors.

Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker.


  • Content count

  • Joined

  • Last visited

Community Reputation

151 Excellent


About titanic1

  • Rank
  1. Researchers discover secret recipe of Roman concrete that allowed it to endure for over 2,000 years Ancient Rome’s concrete recipe is an impressive feat in architectural history. Some Roman buildings are so spectacular in their construction and beauty that modern builders would never attempt something similar, even with today’s technology. Now engineers are beginning to understand why ancient Roman concrete was so revolutionary. Rome built many of its buildings and monuments with concrete made of lime, volcanic sand, and volcanic rock. The ancient Romans’ buildings and structures, some of the most spectacular in the world, have withstood chemical and physical onslaught for 2,000 years and are still standing. Previous research has already found that Roman concrete was far superior to our own modern concrete, which is made to endure about 120 years. It’s been known for a while that the volcanic sand used in Roman concrete and mortar made their buildings last for so long. Now a new study by a group of engineers and engineering researchers has discovered the precise recipe that made the Roman concrete endure much longer than concrete used today. The researchers used an ancient recipe written down by Roman architect Vitruvius to mix a batch of mortar. The engineers let it harden for six months and looked at it with microscopes. They found that clusters of a dense mineral form through the Roman process. These strätlingite crystals, formed by the volcanic sand as it binds with limestone, prevented the spread of cracks by reinforcing interfacial zones. Interfacial zones are weak links inside the concrete. It isn’t just that Roman concrete is more lasting. It is also not as bad for the environment in the manufacturing of it because the mix only needed to be heated to 900 Celsius as opposed to the 1,450 of modern concrete. “Stronger, longer-lasting modern concrete, made with less fuel and less release of carbon into the atmosphere, may be the legacy of a deeper understanding of how the Romans made their incomparable concrete,” Ancient-Origins.net wrote in 2013. Heating the limestone in 19 billion tons of Portland cement made annually accounts for 7 percent of human-released carbon into the atmosphere, according to the new study. http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/researchers-discover-secret-recipe-roman-concrete-020141?nopaging=1 Ancient Roman concrete has withstood the attack by elements for over 2,000 years. The basic construction techniques of the Romans must be better than those of modern practice as judged by comparing the products. Can we learn from the Romans in some way to improve our concrete? Dusty ancient history books taught us that Roman concrete consisted of just three parts: a pasty, hydrate lime; pozzolan ash from a nearby volcano; and a few pieces of fist-sized rock. If these parts were mixed together in the manner of modern concrete and placed in a structure, the result certainly would not pass the test of the ages. The riddle plaguing the minds of our concrete specialists . . . how did those Romans around the time of Christ build such elaborate, ageless structures in concrete as seen on the skyline of Rome? A most unusual Roman structure depicting their technical advancement is the Pantheon, a brick faced building that has withstood the ravages of weathering in near perfect condition, sitting magnificently in the business district of Rome. Perhaps its longevity is told by its purpose . . . to honor all gods. Above all, this building humbles the modern engineer not only in its artistic splendor, but also because there are no steel rods to counter the high tensile forces such as we need to hold modern concrete together. Describing this large circular building tells much of the intelligence of its builders; it was designed to contain a fictional ball, and is some 143 feet in diameter with a wall in the form of skirts dropping from its circumference. In the center of the dome is a 19-foot opening held in place by a bronze ring backed by a brick ring integrated into the concrete dome. This ingenious opening admitted sunlight to brighten the interior The slightly curved marble floor provided drainage and the complex notches in the walls and ceiling tell only a few features of its meticulous design. Solving the riddle of ancient concrete consisted of two studies: one was understanding the chemistry, and the other was determining the placement of ancient concrete. To understand its chemical composition, we must go back in time much before Moses. People of the Middle East made walls for their fortifications and homes by pounding moist clay between forms, often called pise work. To protect the surfaces of the clay from erosion, the ancients discovered that a moist coating of thin, white, burnt limestone would chemically combine with the gases in the air to give a hard protecting shied. We can only guess that the event of discovering pseudo concrete occurred some 200 years before Christ when a lime coating was applied to a wall made of volcanic, pozzolanic ash near the town of Pozzuoli in Italy. A chemical reaction took place between the chemicals in the wall of volcanic ash (silica and small amounts of alumina and iron oxide) and the layer of lime (calcium hydroxide) applied to the wall. Later they found that mixing a little volcanic ash in a fine powder with the moist lime made a thicker coat, but it also produced a durable product that could be submerged in water- something that the plaster product of wet lime and plain sand could not match. To explain this chemical difference we must examine the atomic structure. Common plaster is made with wet lime and plain sand. This sand has a crystalline atomic structure whereby the silica is so condensed there are no atom holes in the molecular network to allow the calcium hydroxide molecule from the lime to enter and react. The opposite is true with the wet lime-pozzolan contact. The pozzolan has an amorphous silica atomic structure with many holes in the molecular network. Upon mixing the wet lime with the pozzolan, the calcium hydroxide enters the atomic holes to make a concrete gel that expands, bonding pieces of rock together. The fine powder condition of the pozzolan provides a large surface area to enhance chemical reaction. We find parts of the complex chemistry of the ancient concrete bonding gel matching the same chemical formula of modern concrete bonding gel. So the pozzolan-wet lime gel gave permanence to the ancient concrete. Explaining the placement of ancient concrete solved the second part of the riddle. Unwittingly, research by the Bureau of Reclamation played a key role here. Chemistry alone will not make good concrete. People make good concrete, and the Bureau of Reclamation has claimed the fame of this expertise. Although a new concrete product called roller compacted concrete had been crudely developed, Reclamation's refinements made it an economical candidate for dam construction. In 1987, the Bureau of Reclamation's astute engineering force built the large Upper Stillwater Dam made of roller compacted concrete in eastern Utah. This concrete consisted of a mixture of 40 percent Portland cement and 60 percent fly ash, a byproduct of electric power plants. By coincidence, the fly ash contained the same amorphous silica compounds as the ash from explosive volcanoes. And the hydrated Portland cement released the calcium component recognized in the lime part of the ancient concrete formula. http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/spillway/spillway.htm
  2. I have heard that too. Dang that Zika Virus is patented by the Rockefeller corporation. Who are these people who would patent a virus?
  3. Yeah whole foods is expensive. I am a vegetarian, I have been for a few years now. Thing about not eating meat is you should take iron and b12 supplements. If you want to know if you are low on iron, eat some beets, and go pee and if it is red you need iron. Thats a test I heard of and I confirmed it works last summer. I would say, eat food as unprocessed as you can, to the point of trying to avoid anything that comes in a box or is advertised on tv. I can't say I worry enough about food being organic or not, things with a thick skin like banana's I think it doesn't matter, things that grow underground like potato's I doubt it matters. When you are shopping for groceries us this https://flipp.com/flyers thats what my wife and i use, it shows the lowest price for whatever you are looking for through all the fliers in your area code. I have used it to save a lot of money.
  4. Bill was lucky to get the IBM contract, and when you churn out that many operating systems a year and you get paid for each one, no wonder the guy is fast becoming a trillionaire. I don't trust everything he donates to.
  5. A legal representative for three chemical companies—Dow Chemical, ADAMA, and FMC—has, according to a letter obtained by the Associated Press, petitioned the Trump administration to disregard government research indicating products sold by the companies are unsafe. The three pesticides addressed by the letter are chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion, members of a category of pesticides widely known as organophosphates. They’re huge in the US; farms use tens of millions of pounds of this stuff to fight worms, beetles, mosquitoes, and other bugs. It is immensely profitable for these companies, but research is mounting that organophosphates are pretty scary. Studies have indicated that they’re disastrous for kids (associated with intelligence deficits, higher rates of autism, decreased motor skills, and more) and probably toxic to bees. Those two studies are from universities, but the federal government has conducted its own tests and found some pretty damning stuff as well. The EPA declared that chlorpyrifos, when used as it normally is, poses health risks to both workers and anyone who comes in contact with contaminated water. And a new batch of studies, compiled jointly by the EPA, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Service, are nearing release. These new studies will state that nearly every species on the Endangered Species List is at risk from the effects of these pesticides. http://modernfarmer.com/2017/04/dow-chemical-asks-trumps-epa-disregard-government-studies-indicate-pesticides-dangerous/ Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion are a group of pesticides that are a big money-maker for Dow Chemical, with the company selling approximately 5 million pounds of chlorpyrifos in the U.S. each year, according to the Associated Press. Dow Chemical, however, has a small problem on its hands, and it’s not the fact that the pesticide was “originally derived from a nerve gas developed by Nazi Germany,” per the AP, though that’s certainly not great for marketing materials. In this case, it’s the fact that studies by federal scientists have found that chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion are harmful to almost 1,800 “critically threatened or endangered species.” Historically, groups like the Environmental Protection Agency would want to avoid killing frogs, fish, birds, mammals, and plants, which is why the regulator and two others that it works with to enforce the Endangered Species Act are reportedly “close to issuing findings expected to result in new limits on how and where the highly toxic pesticides can be used,” the AP reports. Luckily for Dow, the E.P.A. is now run by climate-change skeptic and general enemy of living things Scott Pruitt, who last month said he would reverse “an Obama-era effort to bar the use of Dow's chlorpyrifos pesticide on food after recent peer-reviewed studies found that even tiny levels of exposure could hinder the development of children's brains.” Plus, Dow Chemical C.E.O. Andrew Liveris is good buddies with President Donald Trump. So, you can see how the company, which the AP reports also spent $13.6 million on lobbying last year, might feel like it is in the clear. http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/04/dow-chemical-endangered-species In response to the story, Dow said: "No pest control product has been more thoroughly evaluated, with more than 4,000 studies and reports examining chlorpyrifos in terms of health, safety and the environment. Chlorpyrifos is authorized for use not only in the U.S., but nearly 100 nations, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Italy and Japan. Dow AgroSciences remains confident that authorized uses of chlorpyrifos products offer wide margins of protection for human health and safety... Dow is currently in the midst of a $62 billion attempted merger with DuPont; the companies received a regulatory thumbs-up from the European Union after agreeing to make big divestitures and split into three separate publicly traded companies after the corporate marriage. http://fortune.com/2017/04/20/white-house-environment-dow-chemicals/
  6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xK54Bu9HFRw Large-scale robotic self-assembly When individuals swarm, they must somehow communicate to direct collective motion. Swarms of robots need to deal with outliers, such as robots that move more slowly than the rest. Rubenstein et al. created a large swarm of programmed robots that can form collaborations using only local information. The robots could communicate only with nearby members, within about three times their diameter. They were able to assemble into complex preprogrammed shapes. If the robots' formation hit snags when they bumped into one another or because of an outlier, additional algorithms guided them to rectify their collective movements. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6198/795 “Form a sea star shape,” directs a computer scientist, sending the command to 1,024 little bots simultaneously via an infrared light. The robots begin to blink at one another and then gradually arrange themselves into a five-pointed star. “Now form the letter K.” The ‘K’ stands for Kilobots, the name given to these extremely simple robots, each just a few centimeters across, standing on three pin-like legs. Instead of one highly complex robot, a “kilo” of robots collaborate, providing a simple platform for the enactment of complex behaviors. Just as trillions of individual cells can assemble into an intelligent organism, or a thousand starlings can form a great flowing murmuration across the sky, the Kilobots demonstrate how complexity can arise from very simple behaviors performed en masse (see video). To computer scientists, they also represent a significant milestone in the development of collective artificial intelligence (AI). This self-organizing swarm was created in the lab of Radhika Nagpal, Fred Kavli Professor of Computer Science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and a Core Faculty Member at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University. The advance is described in the August 15 issue of Science. “The beauty of biological systems is that they are elegantly simple—and yet, in large numbers, accomplish the seemingly impossible,” says Nagpal. “At some level you no longer even see the individuals; you just see the collective as an entity to itself.” “Biological collectives involve enormous numbers of cooperating entities—whether you think of cells or insects or animals—that together accomplish a single task that is a magnitude beyond the scale of any individual,” says lead author Michael Rubenstein, a research associate at Harvard SEAS and the Wyss Institute. He cites, for example, the behavior of a colony of army ants. By linking together, they can form rafts and bridges to cross difficult terrain. Social amoebas do something similar at a microscopic scale: when food is scarce, they join together to create a fruiting body capable of escaping the local environment. In cuttlefish, color changes at the level of individual cells can help the entire organism blend into its surroundings. (And as Nagpal points out—with a smile—a school of fish in the movie Finding Nemo also collaborate when they form the shape of an arrow to point Nemo toward the East Australian Current.) “We are especially inspired by systems where individuals can self-assemble together to solve problems,” says Nagpal. Her research group made news in February 2014 with a group of termite-inspired robots that can collaboratively perform construction tasks using simple forms of coordination. https://www.seas.harvard.edu/news/2014/08/self-organizing-thousand-robot-swarm
  7. Each SAM can be rented at a monthly cost of ~$3,300 according to The Sun. With an average efficiency of 3,000 bricks per day, that breaks down to about 4.5 cents per brick. Meanwhile, using using Bernie's preferred $15 per hour minimum wage rate, plus benefits, and a daily efficiency of about 500 bricks brings the human labor cost equivalent to roughly 32 cents per brick, or a little over 7x. Of course, SAM can't completely eliminate the need for masons on work sites just yet, as human assistance is still needed to load bricks and mortar into the system and to clean up excess mortar from joints after bricks have been laid. That said, Construction Robotics estimates that overall labor costs for bricklaying projects can be reduced by at least 50%. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-03-27/meet-sam-brick-laying-robot-does-work-6-humans Robots that can lay six times as many bricks a day as human builders are set to turn the construction industry on its head. New York-based firm Construction Robotics has developed a robot called SAM (short for Semi-Automated Mason), which can lay 3,000 bricks a day. That's significantly more than most human builders, who can lay an average of 500 bricks a day. The devices have already started replacing humans on a handful of sites in America, and Construction Robotics is hoping to introduce the robots in Britain within the next two years. http://www.mirror.co.uk/tech/bricklaying-robots-set-replace-thousands-10107529 Robot bricklayers are putting thousands of construction jobs at risk, it has emerged. The Semi-Automated Mason – or SAM for short – can lay an astounding 3,000 bricks a day in comparison with a construction worker’s average of 500. SAM’s mortar nozzle pumps concrete onto the brick before its robotic arm places it on the wall. It is the creation of New York-based Construction Robotics and has already replaced humans on a handful of sites across America. It’s made up of a conveyor-belt, mortar pump and robotic arm. One builder helps feed the bricks into the machine, which are picked up by the robotic arm, slathered in mortar, and placed on the wall. A second worker will smooth over the excess joint mortar. Construction Robotics is bringing its creation to the United Kingdom “in coming months” and in discussions with construction companies. ‘Robots will soon be on construction sites doing jobs that humans do, but faster.’ - Richard Valentine-Selsey A third of Britain’s construction workers are aged 50 or older, according to the latest figures. That means around 620,000 are expected to retire within the next decade — amid a chronic housing shortage. Richard Valentine-Selsey, a construction consultant, said it was likely that robots would arrive on British building sites within two years. “Robots will soon be on construction sites doing jobs that humans do, but faster,” Valentine-Selsey told The Times. The robots have been met with resistance from the construction workforce. https://nypost.com/2017/03/27/this-bricklaying-robot-is-going-to-destroy-construction-jobs/
  8. Agent Orange was a powerful mixture of chemical defoliants used by U.S. military forces during the Vietnam War to eliminate forest cover for North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, as well as crops that might be used to feed them. The U.S. program of defoliation, codenamed Operation Ranch Hand, sprayed more than 19 million gallons of herbicides over 4.5 million acres of land in Vietnam from 1961 to 1972. Agent Orange, which contained the chemical dioxin, was the most commonly used of the herbicide mixtures, and the most effective. It was later revealed to cause serious health issues–including tumors, birth defects, rashes, psychological symptoms and cancer–among returning U.S. servicemen and their families as well as among the Vietnamese population. OPERATION RANCH HAND AND AGENT ORANGE From 1961 to 1972, the U.S. military conducted a large-scale defoliation program aimed at destroying the forest and jungle cover used by enemy North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops fighting against U.S. and South Vietnamese forces in the Vietnam War. U.S. aircraft were deployed to spray powerful mixtures of herbicides around roads, rivers, canals and military bases, as well as on crops that might be used to supply enemy troops. During this process, crops and water sources used by the non-combatant peasant population of South Vietnam could also be hit. In all, Operation Ranch Hand deployed more than 19 million gallons of herbicides over 4.5 million acres of land. http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/agent-orange Agent Orange and Cancer About 3 million Americans served in the armed forces in Vietnam and nearby areas during the 1960s and early 1970s, the time of the Vietnam War. During that time, the military used large amounts of mixtures known as defoliants, which are chemicals that cause the leaves to fall off plants. One of these defoliants was Agent Orange, and some troops (as well as civilians) were exposed to it. Many years later, questions remain about the lasting health effects of those exposures, including increases in cancer risk. This article is a brief overview of the link between Agent Orange and cancer. This is not a complete review of all evidence – it is meant to be a brief summary. It also includes some information on benefits for which Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange may be eligible. Some background on Agent Orange During the Vietnam War, US military forces sprayed millions of gallons of herbicides (plant-killing chemicals) on lands in Vietnam, Laos, and other nearby areas to remove forest cover, destroy crops, and clear vegetation from the perimeters of US bases. This effort, known as Operation Ranch Hand, lasted from 1962 to 1971. Different mixes of herbicides were used, but most were mixtures of 2 chemicals that were phenoxy herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) Each mixture was shipped in a chemical drum marked with an identifying colored stripe. The most widely used mixture contained equal parts 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Because this herbicide came in drums with orange stripes, it was called Agent Orange. Today, many people use the term “Agent Orange” to refer to all the phenoxy herbicides sprayed at the time. (Other types of herbicides were also used, including cacodylic acid and picloram.) The 2,4,5-T in Agent Orange was contaminated with small amounts of dioxins, which were created unintentionally during the manufacturing process. Dioxins are a family of dozens of related chemicals. They can form during the making of paper and in some other industrial processes. The main dioxin in Agent Orange was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD, which is one of the most toxic. After a 1970 study found that 2,4,5-T could cause birth defects in lab animals, its use in Vietnam was stopped. A year later, all military herbicide use in Vietnam ended. During the 1970s, some veterans returning from Vietnam began to report skin rashes, cancer, psychological symptoms, birth defects in their children, and other health problems. Some veterans were concerned that Agent Orange exposure might have contributed to these problems. These concerns eventually led to a series of scientific studies, health care programs, and compensation programs directed to the exposed veterans. A large class-action lawsuit was filed in 1979 against the herbicide manufacturers, and was settled out of court in 1984. It resulted in the Agent Orange Settlement Fund, which distributed nearly $200 million to veterans between 1988 and 1996. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/agent-orange-and-cancer.html Agent Orange: Background on Monsanto's Involvement From 1965 to 1969, the former Monsanto Company manufactured Agent Orange for the U.S. military as a wartime government contractor. The current Monsanto Company has maintained responsibility for this product since we were spun-off as a separate, independent agricultural company in 2002. More than 40 years ago, Agent Orange was one of 15 herbicides used by the U.S. military as a defoliant in the Vietnam War to protect and save the lives of U.S. and allied soldiers. It was a unique mixture of two common herbicides (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T ) that had been used separately in the United States since the late 1940s. The government named the mixture “Agent Orange” because of the orange band that was painted on containers of the material. From 1965 to 1969, the former Monsanto Company was one of nine wartime government contractors who manufactured Agent Orange. The government set the specifications for making Agent Orange and determined when, where and how it was used. Agent Orange was only produced for, and used by, the government. Ongoing Research and Services The use of Agent Orange as a military herbicide in Vietnam continues to be an emotional subject for many people. Asian Affairs Specialist Michael Martin notes, “[a]t the time the herbicides were used, there was little consideration within the U.S. military about potential long-term environmental and health effects of the widespread use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.” http://www.monsanto.com/newsviews/pages/agent-orange-background-monsanto-involvement.aspx
  9. Fire tornados, or 'fire whirls,' pose a powerful and essentially uncontrollable threat to life, property, and the surrounding environment in large urban and wildland fires. But now, a team of researchers in the A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD) say their discovery of a type of fire tornado they call a 'blue whirl' could lead to beneficial new approaches in reduced carbon emissions and improved oil spill cleanup. A new paper published online August 4, 2016, in the peer-reviewed journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) describes this previously unobserved flame phenomenon, which burns nearly soot-free. "Blue whirls evolve from traditional yellow fire whirls. The yellow color is due to radiating soot particles, which form when there is not enough oxygen to burn the fuel completely," said Elaine Oran, Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering and co-author of the paper. "Blue in the whirl indicates there is enough oxygen for complete combustion, which means less or no soot, and is therefore a cleaner burn." The Clark School team initially set out to investigate the combustion and burning dynamics of fire whirls on water. What they discovered was a novel, swirling blue flame that they say could help meet the growing worldwide demand for high-efficiency, low-emission combustion. "A fire tornado has long been seen as this incredibly scary, destructive thing. But, like electricity, can you harness it for good? If we can understand it, then maybe we can control and use it," said Michael Gollner, assistant professor of fire protection engineering and co-author of the paper. Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-08-newly-blue-tornado-cleaner-emissions.html#jCp Fire tornados, or 'fire whirls,' pose a powerful and essentially uncontrollable threat to life, property, and the surrounding environment in large urban and wildland fires. But now, a team of researchers in the A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD) say their discovery of a type of fire tornado they call a 'blue whirl' could lead to beneficial new approaches in reduced carbon emissions and improved oil spill cleanup. A new paper published online August 4, 2016, in the peer-reviewed journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) describes this previously unobserved flame phenomenon, which burns nearly soot-free. "Blue whirls evolve from traditional yellow fire whirls. The yellow color is due to radiating soot particles, which form when there is not enough oxygen to burn the fuel completely," said Elaine Oran, Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering and co-author of the paper. "Blue in the whirl indicates there is enough oxygen for complete combustion, which means less or no soot, and is therefore a cleaner burn." The Clark School team initially set out to investigate the combustion and burning dynamics of fire whirls on water. What they discovered was a novel, swirling blue flame that they say could help meet the growing worldwide demand for high-efficiency, low-emission combustion. "A fire tornado has long been seen as this incredibly scary, destructive thing. But, like electricity, can you harness it for good? If we can understand it, then maybe we can control and use it," said Michael Gollner, assistant professor of fire protection engineering and co-author of the paper. Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-08-newly-blue-tornado-cleaner-emissions.html#jCp
  10. Bluetooth is named after a medieval king who may have had a blue tooth Bluetooth was never supposed to be called Bluetooth. Back in 1996, a consortium of companies—Intel, Ericsson, Nokia, and later IBM—decided to create a single wireless standard. Each company had been developing their own short-range radio technologies, but all the names they came up with sucked. Then, along came an obscure Scandanavian king from the Middle Ages. King Harald Gormsson is famous for ruling Denmark and then Norway between about 940 and about 986, ultimately uniting all of Scandinavia. He was also the one who converted the Danes to Christianity. Like many medieval rulers, he also had a nickname: blátǫnn in Old Norse or Blåtand in Danish. It means Bluetooth. The exact origin of the nickname is up for debate, but many scholars believe that King Harald became known as Bluetooth because he had a conspicuous dead tooth that literally looked blue. Makes sense. https://gizmodo.com/bluetooth-is-named-after-a-medieval-king-who-may-have-h-1671450657 Harald who conquered for himself the whole of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian.” – Inscription on the Jelling Stone. Harald Bluetooth was the younger son of Gorm the Old and Queen Thyra. His father who was also called Gorm the Languid was the first historically recognized King of Denmark, reigning from c. 936 to his death c. 958. The year of Bluetooth’s birth is unknown; however, according to records of his achievements, he was born sometime around 920 AD. Harald “Bluetooth” Gormsson was King of Denmark for nearly 30 years beginning in approximately 958 AD, when his brother and favored son of Gorm the Old was killed in England during attacks near Ireland. During his reign, Bluetooth united the outlying tribes of Denmark. He defended his people from many Norwegian and German incursions, while overseeing the completion of vast construction projects that strengthened his country’s defenses. He proved to be a skilled leader of his nation both on and off the battlefield. Bluetooth is equally known for casting off the Norse pagan traditions and, becoming a devout Christian who strove to peacefully convert the people of Denmark during his rule. He also commissioned many important construction projects in his country during his reign. In Bluetooth’s legacy there are so-called “runestones” – monuments that usually honored the dead and their deeds Read more: http://www.messagetoeagle.com/legendary-harald-bluetooth-king-of-denmark-who-made-the-danes-christian/#ixzz4fbx3TagM Like most normal people, you probably haven’t invested too much of your valuable time pondering the origins of the term “Bluetooth.” As it turns out, the ubiquitous wireless technology’s name has nothing to do with being blue or tooth-like in appearance and has everything to do with medieval Scandinavia. Harald Bluetooth was the Viking king of Denmark between 958 and 970. King Harald was famous for uniting parts of Denmark and Norway into one nation and converting the Danes to Christianity. So, what does a turn-of-the-last-millennium Viking king have to do with wireless communication? He was a uniter! http://www.pcworld.com/article/2061288/so-thats-why-its-called-bluetooth-and-other-surprising-tech-name-origins.html
  11. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCoDMBUJxCo The United States is pursuing global strategic domination through developing anti-ballistic missile systems capable of a sudden disarming strike against Russia and China, according to the deputy head of operations of the Russian General Staff. There is an obvious link between Washington’s prompt global strike initiative, which seeks capability to engage “any targets anywhere in the world within one hour of the decision,” and the deployment of missile launch systems in Europe and aboard naval vessels across the globe, Lt. Gen. Viktor Poznikhir said at a news briefing on Wednesday. “The presence of US missile defense bases in Europe, missile defense vessels in seas and oceans close to Russia creates a powerful covert strike component for conducting a sudden nuclear missile strike against the Russian Federation,” Poznikhir explained. While the US keeps claiming that its missile defenses are seeking to mitigate threats from rogue states, the results of computer simulations confirm that the Pentagon’s installations are directed against Russia and China, according to Poznikhir. American missile attack warning systems, he said, cover all possible trajectories of Russian ballistic missiles flying toward the United States, and are only expected to get more advanced as new low-orbit satellites complement the existing radar systems. “Applying sudden disarming strikes targeting Russian or Chinese strategic nuclear forces significantly increases the efficiency of the US missile defense system,” Poznikhir added. American ABM systems are not only creating an “illusion” of safety from a retaliatory strike but can themselves be used to launch a sneak nuclear attack on Russia. In a blatant breach of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, the standard land-based launching systems can be covertly rearmed with Tomahawk cruise missiles instead of interceptors – and the Pentagon’s denial of this fact, according to Poznikhir, is “at the very least unconvincing.” Moreover, Washington’s unilateral withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, signed in 1972 with the Soviet Union, allowed it to develop more advanced weapons that can now not only pose a threat to targets on the ground but in space as well. “In February 2008, the Pentagon demonstrated the possibility of engaging spacecraft with its ABM capabilities,” Poznikhir said. “An American satellite at an altitude of about 250 km was destroyed by a Standard-3 missile, an earlier modification, launched from a US Navy destroyer.” “Given the global nature of the ABM ships’ deployment, the space operations of any state, including the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, are under threat.” https://www.rt.com/news/386276-us-missile-shield-russia-strike/ China says it will conduct live-fire drills and test new weapons to safeguard its security in response to the US deployment of an anti-missile system in South Korea. Defence ministry spokesman Yang Yujun on Thursday said that China resolutely opposed the deployment of the Terminal High-Altitude Area Defence (THAAD) system in South Korea, as it would undermine regional stability. “The Chinese military will continue to conduct practical ­targeted live-fire drills, as well as test new weapons and equipment, to defend national security and regional peace and stability,” he said. Yang’s remarks came amid ­reports on Wednesday that the US had started to move parts of the THAAD system to their deployment site in South Korea. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2091248/beijing-promises-military-solution-us-missile-shield
  12. Paul Craig Roberts Not everyone likes to hear about the threat of nuclear war. Some find refuge in denial and say that nuclear war is impossible because it makes no sense. Unfortunately, humankind has a long record of doing things that make no sense. In previous posts in recent years I have pointed out both written documents and changes in US war doctrine that indicate that Washington is preparing a preemptive nuclear attack on Russia and China. More recently, I have shown that Washington’s demonization of Russia and President Putin, the incessant lies about Russian deeds and intentions, and the refusal of Washington to cooperate with Russia on any issue have convinced the Russian government that Washington is preparing the Western populations for an attack on Russia. It is obvious that China has come to the same conclusion. It is extremely dangerous to all of mankind for Washington to convince two nuclear powers that Washington is preparing a preemptive nuclear strike against them. It is impossible to imagine a more reckless and irresponsible act. Yet this is precisely what Washington has done. Lt. Gen. Viktor Poznikhir, Deputy Head of Operations of the Russian General Staff has concluded that Washington in pursuit of global hegemony is implementing an anti-ballistic missile system that Washington believes can prevent a Russian nuclear response to a US pre-emptive attack. http://www.fort-russ.com/2017/04/us-forces-preparing-sudden-nuclear.html Careful studies have convinced the Russians that Washington is investing in and arranging components that have no other function than to devastate Russia and cripple the country’s retaliatory capability. In short, Washington is preparing to launch a nuclear war. https://www.rt.com/news/386276-us-missile-shield-russia-strike/ As I explained previously, the theory behind this insane scheme is that after America’s preemptive strike Russia will be so devastated that Russia would not retaliate with any remaining forces out of fear that Washington would launch a second major strike. Washington also plans to use agents in place to assassinate as many members as possible of the Russian government, thus leaving the government in confusion without leadership. Yes, the insane American/Israeli neoconservatives are this determined to exercise hegemony over the world. Yes, Washington is sufficiently criminally insane to risk the destruction of life on earth based on the supposition that Washington’s offense will work perfectly and Russia and China’s capabilities will be so degraded that no retaliatory response will occur. One might hope that the American and Western populations would be outraged that Washington is so power-crazed that Washington is subjecting all life to such risks. But there is no sign of an anti-war movement. The Western leftwing has degenerated into Identity Politics in which the only threat comes from white heterosexual males who are portrayed as misogynists, racists, and homophopes. The Western leftwing is no longer war-conscious. Indeed, the leftwing has become diverted into such silly irrelevancies as transgender rights to toilets of their choice. The impotence of the Western left is so overwhelming that the left might as well not exist. Where then is the hope? Russia and China cannot simply sit there and await America’s preemptive nuclear strike. Possibly Washington does not intend a preemptive strike, but only to convince Russia and China that Washington’s preparations give Washington so much predominance in a conflict that Russia and China will submit to Washington’s hegemony. But this interpretation of Washington’s intention implies no less risk. Why would Russia and China wait for Washington to complete its preparations for war, preparations that permit Washington to turn Russia and China into puppet states? The US military/security complex has clearly prevailed over Trump’s intention to normalize relations between the US and Russia, and anti-Russian venom continues to pour out of NATO and Washington’s European vassal states. The majority of the American people seem to have accepted the propaganda that Russia is the number one threat to the United States. With propaganda controlling the explanation, Washington’s aggressive actions are explained as defense against a threat and not as a policy that will end life on earth. http://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2017/04/27/washington-plans-nuke-russia-china/ Russia says this PROVES the US planning secret NUKE STRIKE on China or Moscow RUSSIA claims to have evidence the US is secretly planning a surprise nuclear strike. The US is installing anti-ballistic missile defence systems around the world in preparation for a nuke attack on Russia or China, one of Vladimir Putin’s military chiefs has said. Washington has deployed missile barrages capable of shooting down incoming rockets in Europe and on ships in oceans around the world. The THAAD anti-missile defence system is being set up in South Korea, supposedly to protect the key ally from attacks from North Korea. China has objected – saying the US is really using the defence system’s radar to spy on its military. And Russia has also balked at the new ring of steel appearing on its border. http://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/world-news/609222/trump-russia-military-vladimir-putin-world-war-3-missile-shield-nuclear-strike-ww3 These people have been afraid that the US will execute a first nuclear strike on them and that they have the equipment in place to do so. -T
  13. A recent study on a space anomaly that has perplexed scientists for years has some suggesting that it could be explained by a parallel "bubble universe" — although there are other, more standard potential explanations, as well. TOO COLD For years, scientists have been baffled by a weird anomaly far away in space: a mysterious “Cold Spot” about 1.8 billion light-years across. It is cooler than its surroundings by around 0.00015 degrees Celsius (0.00027 degrees Fahrenheit), a fact astronomers discovered by measuring background radiation throughout the universe. Previously, astronomers believed that this space could be cooler simply because it had less matter in it than most sections of space. They dubbed it a massive supervoid and estimated that it had 10,000 galaxies fewer than other comparable sections of space. But now, in a recently published survey of galaxies, astronomers from the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) say they have discovered that this supervoide could not exist. They now believe that the galaxies in the cold spot are just clustered around smaller voids that populate the cold spot like bubbles. These small voids, however, cannot explain the temperature difference observed. MULTIVERSE? To link the temperature differences to the smaller voids, the researchers say a non-standard cosmological model would be required. “But our data place powerful constraints on any attempt to do that,” explained researcher Ruari Mackenzie in an RAS press release. While the study had a large margin of error, the simulations suggest there is only a two percent probability that the Cold Spot formed randomly. https://futurism.com/new-evidence-about-cold-spot-in-space-could-support-case-for-a-multiverse/ We may have just, for the first time ever, caught a tantalizing glimpse of a parallel universe bumping against our own. Scientists say that signals from the furthest reaches of space suggest that the fabric of our universe is being disrupted by another universe. The discovery could provide proof of the multiverse theory, which says that there are many alternate universes. The existence of multiple universes – a multiverse – has been considered scientifically plausible. If all these universes emerged from the same Big Bang, then they’re likely sitting together in a row, vibrating. According to the theory, if these universes touch one another, the resulting collision would leave some sort of evidence. According to New Scientist, which first reported the Dr. Chary’s research, this is akin to two bubbles bumping into each other. These so-called “bubble universes”, which are expanding within the multiverse, bumped into each other as they expanded after the Big Bang, leaving an imprint on each other’s outer surface. http://upriser.com/posts/scientists-may-have-just-discovered-a-parallel-universe-leaking-into-ours
  14. In 1992, construction workers were digging up a freeway in San Diego, California when they came across a trove of ancient bones. Among them were the remains of dire wolves, camels, horses and gophers—but the most intriguing were those belonging to an adult male mastodon. After years of testing, an interdisciplinary team of researchers announced this week that these mastodon bones date back to 130,000 years ago. The researchers then went on to make an even more stunning assertion: These bones, they claim, also bear the marks of human activity. The team’s findings, published today in the journal Nature, could upend our current understanding of when humans arrived in North America—already a flashpoint among archaeologists. Recent theories posit that people first migrated to the continent about 15,000 years ago along a coastal route, as Jason Daley writes in Smithsonian. But in January, a new analysis of horse remains from the Bluefish Caves by archaeologist Jacques Cinq-Mars suggested that humans may have lived on the continent as early as 24,000 years ago. The new study, however, suggests that some type of hominin species—early human relatives from the genus Homo—was bashing up mastodon bones in North America about 115,000 years earlier than the commonly accepted date. That’s a staggeringly early date, and one that is likely to raise eyebrows. There is no other archaeological evidence attesting to such an early human presence in North America. “I realize that 130,000 years is a really old date,” Thomas Deméré, principal paleontologist at the San Diego Museum of Natural History and one of the authors of the study, conceded during a press conference. “Of course, extraordinary claims like this require extraordinary evidence.” Deméré and his co-authors believe that their discoveries at the Cerutti Mastodon site—as the area of excavation is known—provide just that. Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/new-evidence-human-activity-north-america-130000-years-ago-180963046/#Y6R8z4x3vF6ljULm.99 Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter The findings Scientists specialized in various fields, from archaeology to the environment, have done research at the Cerutti site since its discovery. Advanced radiometric dating technology allowed scientists to determine the mastodon bones belong to the Late Pleistocene period, or 130,000 years old, with a margin of error of plus or minus 9,400 years. "The bones and several teeth show clear signs of having been deliberately broken by humans with manual dexterity and experiential knowledge," Holen said in a press release. Experts agreed that the earliest records of human ancestors in North America is about 15,000 years old, but the discovery of the Cerutti site "shows that human ancestors were in the New World ten times that length of time," said paleontologist Lawrence Vescera. "This site really nails it because the evidence is really clear." John McNabb, an archaeologist at the University of Southampton, UK, told Nature he questions how humans crossed the wider sea line between northeastern Siberia and Alaska 130,000 years ago. "Until we actually find a skeleton at this site, or at the site of a comparable age in the America, it's all open to speculation and we just don't know," McNabb said. http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/26/health/new-human-discovery-north-america-trnd/ This is a recent discovery that has been released so I will put it in the news part but if that is wrong please move it. Thanks -T